Activities to Teach Students to Use Commas With Direct Addresses, Introductory Words, Interjections, Interrupters, and Antithetical Phrases

Commas are an essential staple of English punctuation, and every student must master its usage. One of the most common ways to use commas is to separate words or phrases that are not essential to the sentence’s meaning but add further explanation.

There are several instances in sentences where students must learn to use commas, such as with direct addresses, introductory words, interjections, interrupters, and antithetical phrases. Here are some activities that teachers can use to teach these comma uses to their students.

Direct Addresses

Direct addresses are words spoken to a specific person or entity in a sentence. Commas separate the direct address from the rest of the sentence. Teachers can demonstrate this rule by addressing students in the class, using titles, or nicknames, and showing how to use a comma before and after the direct address.

Teacher: “Class, let’s take out our commas book for today’s lesson.”

Student: “Yes, ma’am.”

Introductory Words

Introductory words include transitional phrases, clauses, and conjunctions that provide a transition in a sentence. Commas should appear after any introductory word. Teachers can create sentences with a variety of introductory words and ask students to identify the word and add the appropriate punctuation mark.

Teacher: “After we conclude this lesson, we will take a break.”

Student: “After the class ends, we can play some games outside.”


Interjections are words or phrases that are not grammatically connected to the other words in a sentence but are used to express emotions. Commas must separate these phrases from the rest of the sentence. Teachers can provide a list of common interjections such as “oops,” “wow,” and “oh” and incorporate them into sentences as examples.

Teacher: “Oops, I forgot to bring my book to class.”

Student: “Wow, this is the best lesson I have learned so far.”


Interrupters are words, phrases, or clauses that disrupt the flow of a sentence but provide additional information, such as an emphasized or contrasting point. Commas should appear before and after the interrupter to separate them from the sentence. Teachers can create sample sentences with interrupters and demonstrate how to use commas properly.

Teacher: “His first reaction, of course, was to make a joke.”

Student: “The biggest mistake, in my opinion, is not studying for exams.”

Antithetical Phrases

Antithetical phrases are words or phrases that contain ideas that contrast each other. A comma must separate these phrases from each other. Teachers can provide examples where they use antithetical phrases to illustrate the rule.

Teacher: “He was a strict teacher, but he was also very kind to his students.”

Student: “I love spending time outdoors, but I also enjoy reading indoors.”

Using commas in writing improves the clarity and readability of the text. These activities can help students learn how to use commas correctly in various situations, making their writing more effective and compelling. Teachers must provide ample opportunities for practice and offer feedback, leading their students to become proficient writers.     

Choose your Reaction!