How to Implement the Text Frame with Gaps Teaching Strategy in Your Classroom

Learners are provided with an outline of the content, but the outline has some gaps. Learners read the content to fill in the gaps.

Learning Outcomes

  • Set a purpose for reading
  • Ask and answer questions
  • Stimulate interest and curiosity


  1. Select a challenging literary or informational content. This method is ideally suited for content with complex ideas and/or challenging language.
  2. Draft an outline of the content, omitting one or two essential details. For instance, a text frame with gaps for a chapter in a social studies textbook on the events leading to America’s involvement in World War II may look like this:
    • German troops occupy Paris.
    • France surrenders.
    • Hitler begins an all-out attack on Britain.
    • America considers its options.  
    • The U.S. declares war.
  3. Ask learners to read the content, paying close attention to finding the missing information.
  4. After learners read the content, have them share what they wrote for the missing information. You could even vote to see which learner or team composes the best statement.


  1. This method allows learners to not only comprehend the content but requires them to pay close attention to their reading to find out what belongs in the fifth bullet point.
  2. As learners become more familiar with the process, add more missing bullets (gaps), requiring them to read and find the missing information.
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