# Teaching Students About the Magnetic Compass

When it comes to navigation, there are a few key tools that every traveler should know how to use. One of these tools is the magnetic compass, which has been used for centuries to help people find their way. While GPS technology has made it easier for us to navigate in recent years, the magnetic compass is still an important instrument, especially in situations where technology fails or is unavailable.

Teaching students about the magnetic compass is an important part of any geography, orienteering or navigation lesson plan. By understanding how it works and how to use it, students can expand their understanding of map reading, avoid getting lost, and gain confidence in their ability to navigate through unknown terrain.

So, how does a magnetic compass work? At its most basic level, a compass consists of a magnetized needle that aligns itself with the Earth’s magnetic field. The needle is suspended and allowed to pivot freely on a pivot point or axis, and the tip of the needle always points towards magnetic north. A magnetic compass is a simple, easy-to-use tool that can help individuals determine cardinal directions.

In the classroom, it’s important to give students a hands-on experience when examining a magnetic compass. Using a visual board with pictures to illustrate North, East, South and West can be helpful. The teacher should demonstrate how to hold the compass level and use it to take a reading of the surrounding area. Students should be given a chance to practice using the compass both indoors and outside, reading bearings and taking direction.

Though using a compass may be simple, there are some key issues to keep in mind:

Variation: Magnetic north varies from true north by a few degrees depending on the location, and compass users must account for this difference in order to accurately navigate.

Declination: The difference between true north and magnetic north is called declination. Make sure your students understand how this works and adjust accordingly when navigating. This is a more involved topic but worth touching upon with older students.

Interference: Magnetic fields in everyday items such as power tools, mobiles and metallic objects can interfere with the compass. It’s important to either remove such objects from around you or move away from them while using the compass.

By teaching students about magnetic compasses, you’re giving them a practical skill that will stay with them for life. They gain a sense of control over their environment and an ability to overcome fear of the unknown. And for geography students, it can be crucial to understand in order to better interpret maps. It’s an essential element in the toolbox of any traveler, hiker or explorer.