What is Psychosocial Theory?

These are a group of ideas and principles that is worked in a way a social context is related to psychological development. It is common to associate Erik Erikson with this theory.

The psychosocial theory comprises the following eight stages.

Trust vs. mistrust: This stage starts at birth and continues to around 18 months of age. Infants depend solely upon their caregivers. Therefore, if caregivers are sensitive and responsive to their infants’ needs, it helps them develop a sense of trust. Indifferent caregivers who don’t fulfill their babies’ needs might cause the infants to develop feelings of mistrust, anxiety, and fear and consider the world unpredictable.

Autonomy vs. shame and doubt: This stage happens between 11/2 and 3 years of age. If kids are allowed to grow at their own pace at this stage, they can acquire self-confidence and self-reliance. However, if parents are overprotective, inconsistent, or overcritical, the kids might doubt their ability to control their world and themselves.

Initiative vs. guilt: The third stage occurs during preschool, between the ages of 3 and 5 years. Children can develop initiative via social interactions and by directing play and other activities. If their pursuits don’t succeed or are criticized, feelings of guilt and self-doubt might arise.

Industry vs. inferiority: It occurs between the ages of 5 and 12 years. At this stage, children start to compare themselves with peers. They learn to be protective and acknowledge the assessment of their efforts. In turn, they may develop a sense of pride and accomplishment in their academic work, social activities, sports, and home life. If children feel they don’t measure up, they might develop feelings of incompetence or inferiority.

Identity vs. role confusion: A person develops a sense of self by trying out different social roles between the ages of 12 and 18. An adolescent who successfully develops a positive, cohesive identity will have a powerful sense of identity. Adolescents who are pressured into an identity or don’t search for an identity might develop a poor sense of self and experience role confusion.

Intimacy vs. isolation: This stage occurs between late adolescence and early middle age. A powerful sense of self has to be developed in adolescence to develop intimate relationships with others. Adults who don’t have a positive self-concept might experience loneliness or emotional isolation.

Generativity vs. stagnation: This stage occurs between the ages of 40 and 65. People have a positive objective of generativity during this stage. In most cases, this leads to procreation alongside the fulfillment of social and parental responsibilities, while failure leads to superficial involvement in the world.

Integrity vs. despair: The final stage occurs during old age when an individual reflects on life. A person can either form a feeling of satisfaction in life or despair over wasted time and missed opportunities.

Erikson’s theory also comes with limitations. One major downside of the theory is that the exact processes for resolving conflicts and moving from one stage to another aren’t well described. It fails to describe exactly what kinds of experiences are required at every stage for effectively resolving the conflicts and moving to the next stage.

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