Special Education

Why Sensory Pathways Are Changing School Hallways For Good

School hallways have traditionally been seen as simple transitions between classrooms, used to usher students from one lesson to the next. However, a new trend is emerging that is transforming these spaces into integral parts of the educational environment – sensory pathways.

Sensory pathways are colorful, creative tracks laid out on the floors and walls of school corridors designed to engage children’s senses and encourage a variety of movements such as hopping, skipping, jumping, or balancing. These pathways are beneficial for all students but are particularly useful for those with sensory processing issues, such as children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or other neurological differences.

The incorporation of sensory pathways in school hallways serves a multifaceted purpose. First and foremost, they provide an opportunity for physical activity throughout the day, which can enhance a child’s attention span, memory, and emotional regulation. Regular movement breaks have been linked to better academic performance as they allow children to expend their natural energy and refocus on their studies.

In addition to the physical benefits, sensory pathways offer psychological advantages by helping to reduce anxiety and stress. The simple actions required to follow the pathway can serve as a grounding exercise that brings children into the present moment, diverting their attention away from stressors and calming their minds before entering the classroom.

Sensory pathways also encourage the development of motor skills such as balance and coordination. Through fun challenges presented by different sections of the pathway—like stepping over logs, weaving between flowers, or following a spiral—children get to practice important physical skills in a playful setting.

Moreover, these pathways foster inclusivity. Schools with sensory pathways show that they value diverse learning needs and are committed to creating a learning environment that accommodates all students. When children witness adaptations being made for various needs, it promotes understanding and empathy within the student body.

The implementation of these pathways has another unexpected outcome: it can transform behavior management. Instead of seeing movement as a disciplinary concern—where running or skipping in hallways would often be reprimanded—a sensory pathway channels these natural impulses in a positive way. This not only reduces conflict but also empowers children to manage their own energy levels responsibly.

Lastly, sensory paths can add an aesthetic appeal to otherwise bland school hallways. They brighten up spaces and make schools more inviting, creating an environment where students feel welcomed and stimulated by their surroundings.

In conclusion, sensory pathways are revolutionizing school hallways by offering an array of benefits that go beyond mere decoration. They contribute positively to children’s physical well-being, emotional state, motor skill development, inclusivity within the school community, behaviour management and environmental aesthetics. As more schools recognize their value, it is likely that sensory pathways will become a standard feature in educational institutions around the world—changing school hallways for good.

Sensory Processing Disorder Supporting Spd Students In The Classroom

Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) is a condition where the brain has difficulties receiving and responding to information that comes in through the senses. Formerly referred to as Sensory Integration Disorder, it can affect children and adults, but often the signs are more evident in children, particularly within classroom settings.

Students with SPD may over-respond to sensory stimuli (hypersensitivity) or under-respond (hyposensitivity) which can lead to challenges in performing everyday tasks. These students often find it difficult to concentrate, participate in class activities, and may either become easily overwhelmed or seek intense sensory experiences.

Teachers play a vital role in supporting students with SPD. Here are some strategies for accommodating these students within the classroom:

Create a Sensory-Friendly Environment:

– Use soft lighting or natural light to avoid harsh fluorescent lights.

– Incorporate quiet spaces or corners where students can retreat when feeling overwhelmed.

– Allow for flexible seating options such as stability balls, cushion seats, or standing desks.

Incorporate Sensory Breaks:

– Schedule short breaks for sensory activities like stretching or walking.

– Have a box of sensory tools available, including stress balls, fidget toys, and resistance bands.

– Encourage deep breathing exercises or guided imagery for calming.

Differentiate Instruction:

– Use visual aids and hands-on learning materials to enhance understanding.

– Provide clear and concise instructions visually and verbally.

– Offer alternative methods to demonstrate comprehension aside from traditional written tests.

Foster a Routine:

– Establishing a predictable schedule helps reduce anxiety for students with SPD.

– Post visual schedules and give advanced notice of any changes.

– Ensure transitions between activities are smooth and well signaled.

Encourage Social Interaction:

– Facilitate group activities where the student with SPD can interact with peers in a structured way.

– Pair the student with compassionate classmates who can provide support.

– Promote understanding among students by integrating lessons about diversity and inclusion.

Collaborate with Parents and Professionals:

– Work closely with parents who can provide insights into what works best for their child at home.

– Consult occupational therapists who specialize in SPD for tailored strategies specific to each child.

– Share information regarding the student’s progress and adapt strategies accordingly.

Proper Training for Educators:

– Invest time in professional development around SPD and its implications in learning environments.

– Share resources among staff members to create a supportive network for educators dealing with SPD challenges.

Monitoring Progress:

-Assess the effectiveness of accommodations regularly. Keep an eye open for signs of sensory overload or seeking behaviors that indicate adjustments might be necessary.

-Provide opportunities for self-reflection so students can communicate their feelings and preferences about the supports provided.

By implementing these strategies, educators can effectively support the unique needs of students with SPD. It is important to recognize that each child is different, and what works for one may not work for another. Patience, flexibility, and continual adaptation will go a long way towards creating an inclusive environment that empowers all students’ learning capabilities.

Special Education Teaching Resources for Teachers

Special education teachers play a critical role in enabling students with diverse needs to achieve their full potential. To support this mission, educators can access a wealth of resources designed specifically for the unique challenges of special education. From customizable lesson plans to assistive technologies, here are several invaluable tools and materials that special education teachers can integrate into their teaching strategies.

Firstly, websites like Teachers Pay Teachers offer a plethora of resources created by fellow educators, which include worksheets, interactive activities, and comprehensive lesson sequences tailored to a variety of learning differences. Such platforms enable teachers to share best practices and content that can be directly applied or adapted to their own classrooms.

Another fundamental resource is the use of assistive technology. Tools such as speech-to-text programs, text-to-speech software, and alternative input devices help students overcome barriers to learning. These technologies not only support students with disabilities in accessing the curriculum but also empower them to express themselves more freely.

Organizations like The Council for Exceptional Children provide professional development opportunities for special education teachers. These include webinars, certification courses, and conferences that keep teachers at the forefront of educational research and pedagogical strategies.

Furthermore, educational apps and games designed for special needs students offer engaging ways to build skills in various subject areas. Apps such as Proloquo2Go assist nonverbal children with communication, while others focus on social skills or sensory processing.

Additionally, visual aids and manipulatives are essential in a special education setting. Visual schedules, storyboards, and token economy systems can support behavior management and daily routines. Manipulatives provide hands-on ways to grasp mathematical concepts or improve fine motor skills.

Lastly, collaboration with other professionals such as speech-language pathologists, occupational therapists, and school psychologists is vital. Interdisciplinary teams can develop Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) that cater to the holistic needs of each student. Networking within these professional circles often leads to the discovery of new resources and collaborative efforts in creating specialized educational materials.

In conclusion, the wealth of resources available to special education teachers is vast and continuously evolving. By employing these tools effectively in their teaching practices, educators can enhance their instruction methods and better address the diverse learning styles and needs of their students, thereby fostering an inclusive environment where every learner has the opportunity for success.

25 Social Stories To Use in the Mainstream Classroom

Social stories can be an incredibly powerful tool in the mainstream classroom. They are a resource for teaching social skills to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other social deficits by providing a visual explanation of the nuanced social cues and appropriate responses. These stories help students understand and navigate interpersonal communication and social interactions, which can often be challenging and complex.

Here are 25 social stories that you might find useful for incorporating into a mainstream classroom:

1. Making Friends: A story about how to approach others and begin friendships.

2. Sharing is Caring: Demonstrating the importance of sharing with peers.

3. Listening to the Teacher: The importance of paying attention during class.

4. Personal Space: Understanding the concept of personal boundaries.

5. Following Instructions: Learning how to follow step-by-step instructions.

6. Using Kind Words: Teaching the value of kind language towards others.

7. Playing Fairly: How to play games with others in a fair and fun way.

8. Patience is Key: Learning to wait one’s turn in various situations.

9. Handling Disappointment: Appropriate reactions when things don’t go as planned.

10. Being Respectful: How to treat classmates and teachers with respect.

11. Asking for Help: The steps to take when assistance is needed.

12. Apologizing: The importance of saying sorry when mistakes are made.

13. Classroom Routines: A guide through everyday classroom procedures.

14. Working in Groups: How to cooperate and work collaboratively with peers.

15. Dealing with Bullying: Understanding what bullying is and how to respond.

16. Expressing Emotions: Identifying feelings and expressing them healthily.

17. The Power of Please and Thank You: Using polite words in daily interactions.

18. Staying Focused: Strategies for not getting distracted during lessons or work time.

19. Accepting Differences: Recognizing and embracing individual differences among peers.

20. Fire Drills at School: What to do when there’s a fire drill, depicted step-by-step.

21. Going on a Field Trip: Describing what to expect on a field trip and appropriate behavior outside the classroom.

22. Textbook Care: How to responsibly handle school books and materials.

23. Healthy Eating Habits: Choosing good foods during lunchtime for better health and energy at school.

24. Keep Trying!: A story about perseverance when tasks get challenging or frustrating.

25. Ending the Day Positively: The importance of closing out the school day with positive thoughts and actions.

Each of these social stories can be tailored based on age, cognitive level, specific needs, or class dynamics, making them flexible tools that can be used repeatedly across various scenarios within the mainstream classroom environment. With regular use, they can help foster understanding, inclusivity, compassion, self-regulation, and respect among all students, which contributes significantly to creating a nurturing educational space for everyone involved.

By integrating these simple yet effective narratives into daily routines, teachers can make leaps in building foundational social skills within their classrooms that will serve their students throughout their lives both inside and outside educational settings.

Why You Should be Teaching Mindfulness to Improve Student Learning

In recent years, mindfulness has emerged as a vital tool in education to enhance the learning experience and improve student outcomes. Here are several reasons why incorporating mindfulness into the classroom can be beneficial for students:

1. Enhanced Focus and Concentration: Mindfulness teaches students to concentrate on the present moment, which can lead to better focus in their studies. This deliberate focus can reduce distractions and improve the capacity to absorb new information.

2. Stress Reduction: School can be stressful, with deadlines and exams causing anxiety. Mindfulness practices can help students cope with stress by promoting relaxation and encouraging a calm mind.

3. Improved Emotional Regulation: By becoming more aware of their thoughts and feelings through mindfulness, students can learn to manage their emotions more effectively. This emotional intelligence is crucial for navigating social interactions and academic pressures.

4. Increased Resilience: Through mindfulness, students can build resilience by understanding that setbacks are temporary. This mindset is particularly valuable in education where challenges are frequent.

5. Enhanced Academic Performance: Studies have shown that mindfulness can contribute to academic success. A calm and focused mind allows for improved memory retention and cognitive functioning.

6. Better Classroom Environment: Mindfulness can promote a sense of community and empathy among students, leading to a more collaborative and supportive classroom atmosphere.

7. Long-term Health Benefits: The benefits of mindfulness extend beyond school; it can also lead to long-term health improvements like reduced blood pressure and improved immune function.

Educators looking to enhance learning should consider integrating mindfulness exercises into their curriculum. Whether it’s through guided meditation, breathing exercises, or simply teaching students to be present, these tools can make a significant difference in student learning outcomes.

What is Dysgraphia? Support and Strategies for Your Classroom

Dysgraphia is a specific learning disability that affects a person’s handwriting ability and fine motor skills. It interferes with spelling, word spacing, and the general ability to put thoughts on paper. This might manifest as trouble with handwriting, typing, and spelling. Often misunderstood as laziness or lack of effort, dysgraphia is a neurological disorder that requires understanding and appropriate strategies to manage.

Understanding Dysgraphia in the Classroom

In a classroom setting, dysgraphia can be challenging for both students and teachers. Students with dysgraphia may experience difficulty organizing their thoughts on paper, struggle with the physical task of writing, or have trouble understanding proper sentence structure and grammar. Teachers may notice inconsistent spacing between words, illegible handwriting, or written work that is vastly different from their oral abilities.

Support Strategies for Dysgraphia

To support students with dysgraphia, educators can employ several strategies:

1. Use of Technology: Encouraging the use of computers or tablets can be extremely beneficial. Word processors often come with spell-check functions, and speech-to-text tools can help get ideas down more fluidly.

2. Alternative Writing Tools: Pencil grips, wider-lined paper, or other specialized writing instruments designed for easier handling can make writing less physically taxing.

3. Graphic Organizers: Implementing graphic organizers like mind maps or flow charts helps students plan and organize their writing.

4. Additional Time: Providing extra time for writing tasks ensures students are not rushed, which can worsen handwriting.

5. Explicit Instruction: Teaching handwriting skills explicitly or using occupational therapy exercises can improve motor control.

6. Modified Assignments: Reducing the length requirement for written work or allowing verbal responses can make assignments more manageable for students with dysgraphia.

7. Assessment Adjustments: Assessing knowledge through oral presentations or multiple-choice questions rather than written exams accommodates dysgraphic learners’ needs.

It is vital that teachers recognize the signs of dysgraphia and adapt their classroom strategies to support these students’ unique learning needs effectively. Through patience, creative accommodation, and specialized instruction, students with dysgraphia can experience success in the classroom and beyond.

Provision for pupils with development coordination disorder/dyspraxia


Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), also known as dyspraxia, is a condition that affects motor coordination and can impact both fine and gross motor skills. It is estimated that approximately 5-6% of school-aged children have DCD, making it crucial for schools and educators to provide appropriate support for these pupils. This article aims to explore the challenges faced by students with DCD/dyspraxia, as well as provide strategies and provisions to ensure their academic and personal success.

Understanding Developmental Coordination Disorder/Dyspraxia

DCD/dyspraxia is a neurological condition that affects the way the brain processes information, resulting in difficulties with coordination and movement. It can manifest in various ways, including challenges with balance, fine motor skills (such as handwriting and using utensils), organization and planning, and auditory processing. As a result, pupils with DCD/dyspraxia often experience academic difficulties and social challenges.

Identifying Pupils with DCD/Dyspraxia

Early identification of pupils with DCD/dyspraxia is essential in providing support to enhance their learning experience. Educators should be vigilant in observing signs consistent with DCD, such as delayed crawling or walking, difficulty with fine motor skills like writing or buttoning clothes, or clumsiness resulting in frequent falls or accidents.

Provisions and Strategies for Pupils with DCD/Dyspraxia

1. Individualized Education Plan (IEP): Each student with DCD/dyspraxia should have an individualized education plan tailored according to their unique needs. The IEP should focus on utilizing the pupil’s strengths while addressing their weaknesses through targeted interventions.

2. Classroom accommodations: Teachers must collaborate with special education specialists to modify the learning environment and provide multisensory instruction. Some accommodations may include providing extra time for assignments and assessments, offering clear and concise instructions, or modifying the curriculum to align with the students’ skill levels.

3. Occupational therapy: Occupational therapists can work with pupils to develop targeted strategies to improve fine and gross motor skills, promoting increased control over their movements. These may include activities such as practicing letter formation, strengthening hand-eye coordination, or introducing adaptive equipment like pencil grips and modified scissors.

4. Physical Education adaptations: Physical activity is crucial for pupils with DCD/dyspraxia because it helps build coordination and balance. Specialized physical education teachers can design a program that focuses on skills development while ensuring that the activities are adaptable to meet each student’s abilities.

5. Social support: Pupils with DCD/dyspraxia often face social challenges due to their physical difficulties and perceived clumsiness. By creating a supportive classroom climate and facilitating opportunities for peer interaction, educators can help foster positive social experiences for these pupils.


Providing tailored provisions and strategies for pupils with developmental coordination disorder/dyspraxia is essential in fostering an inclusive learning environment that meets the needs of all students. By understanding the unique challenges faced by children with DCD/dyspraxia and implementing supportive measures, educators can empower these pupils to reach their full potential in both their academic and personal lives.

SENCO Update


Special Educational Needs Coordinators (SENCOs) play a vital role in supporting children with special educational needs and disabilities. As the education landscape evolves, it is crucial for SENCOs to remain up-to-date on the latest developments influencing their roles. In this article, we will take a look at the most recent updates within the SENCO domain that professionals should be aware of.

1. Professional Development Opportunities

Continuous professional development is vital for SENCOs to enhance their skills and adapt to the ever-changing world of special education. Recently, several organizations have launched online courses aimed at providing SENCOs with access to valuable resources and learning opportunities. These courses range from introductory overview sessions to more advanced modules, addressing topics such as effective assessment practices, EHC plan implementation, and inclusive teaching strategies.

2. New Legislation and Guidelines

SENCOs must stay informed about the changes to legislation and guidelines that may impact their roles. One notable update is the recently proposed changes to the Mental Capacity Act 2005, which aims to provide greater protection and support for individuals lacking mental capacity. This legislative change will have a direct impact on how SENCOs address the needs of students who may be affected.

3. Changes in Funding Allocation

Funding is a perennial issue for SENCOs, as resources are often limited, and funding allocations can vary year by year. Recent updates have seen a shift in how funding is allocated, with greater emphasis placed on individual schools’ accountability and responsibility for allocating resources efficiently. As a result, it’s now more crucial than ever for SENCOs to demonstrate successful outcomes from their interventions and programs.

4. Technological Innovations

Technology continues to transform education, enabling new solutions to be implemented across all aspects of school life – including special educational needs provision. Examples of recent technological advancements include adaptive software tailored for children with dyslexia, virtual reality interventions for children with autism, and communication aids for students with speech and language difficulties. Staying updated on these innovations can ensure SENCOs provide the most effective support for their students.

5. Emphasis on Mental Health and Emotional Well-being

In recent years, schools have been encouraged to prioritize mental health and emotional well-being within their curricula. As a result, SENCOs must be prepared to address the additional needs of children facing mental health challenges alongside their primary special education needs. Greater emphasis has been placed on early identification, effective support, and robust collaboration with external mental health services.


Keeping up-to-date with the latest developments in SENCO provision is essential for professionals in this field. The ever-evolving nature of special education requires an ongoing commitment to enhancing knowledge, adapting practices, and understanding contemporary challenges. By staying informed about professional development opportunities, legislative changes, funding mechanisms, technological innovations, and a growing focus on mental health and well-being, SENCOs can continually refine their approach to ensure they provide the best possible support for their students.

Study Skills for SEN


Every student should have the opportunity to reach their full academic potential. For those with special educational needs (SEN), creating an inclusive and effective learning environment can be challenging, but it is essential to ensure equitable education. This article focuses on study skills that can enhance learning and comprehension for students with SEN, making the journey towards academic success easier and more enjoyable.

1. Create a Structured Study Environment

A structured study environment is essential for students with SEN. This means establishing a dedicated space for studying and maintaining a consistent daily schedule. This structured approach helps create a sense of routine, which can be especially beneficial for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

2. Break Tasks into Smaller Steps

Breaking tasks into smaller, manageable steps makes it easier for students with SEN to understand and complete assignments. This strategy works well for developing problem-solving skills and mastering complex subjects such as math or reading by focusing on one step at a time.

3. Use Multisensory Learning Strategies

Multisensory learning strategies involve engaging multiple senses at once to help students better process and retain information. For example, use visual aids like charts or diagrams, auditory tools like recordings or read-alouds, and tactile activities to promote hands-on learning. These strategies can be highly beneficial for children with dyslexia or other learning difficulties.

4. Implement Self-Monitoring Techniques

Self-monitoring techniques allow students to track their own progress, helping them take ownership of their learning experience. Teaching students to reflect on their successes and struggles during the study process will encourage self-awareness and foster independent problem-solving skills.

5. Leverage Assistive Technology

There are numerous assistive technologies available that can significantly improve the study experience for students with SEN. Text-to-speech tools, alternative keyboard layouts, and voice recognition software can provide valuable support for children with difficulties in reading, writing, or motor skills.

6. Encourage Regular Breaks

Regular breaks are important to help students with SEN maintain focus and avoid becoming overwhelmed. Encouraging short breaks for relaxation or physical activity can alleviate stress, recharge mental capacity, and promote overall well-being.

7. Provide Clear Instructions and Feedback

Students with SEN often need clear instructions and immediate feedback to help them understand expectations and stay on track. Offering step-by-step guidance and constructive criticism can provide a sense of direction and boost students’ confidence in their abilities.


Every child deserves an opportunity to succeed academically. By utilizing these strategies, educators and parents can create an inclusive and effective learning environment that promotes the development of essential study skills for students with special educational needs. With persistence, patience, and empathy, we can help these wonderful children reach their full potential.

Making PE accessible to pupils with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties

Physical Education (PE) plays a crucial role in the holistic development of a child, fostering physical, mental, and emotional well-being. However, pupils with social, emotional, and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) often face unique challenges in participating in PE classes. Consequently, it is vital for schools and educators to find ways to make PE accessible and enjoyable for all students.

Understanding SEBD

Children with SEBD may experience a wide range of challenges. These can include difficulty forming relationships with peers and adults; temper tantrums; impulsiveness; difficulties paying attention and following instructions; withdrawn behaviour; anxiety; or depression. Social, emotional and behavioural difficulties can be direct consequences of underlying conditions such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

Strategies to make PE accessible for SEBD pupils

1. Build positive relationships: One of the most important steps in helping students with SEBD feel comfortable in PE class is establishing strong relationships between the educators, students, and their peers. This means fostering an environment where trust, clear communication, and understanding are key components.

2. Adapt activities: Tailor the activities according to the needs of individual students by modifying games or exercises to suit their abilities. Breaking activities down into smaller steps can also aid in understanding and engagement levels.

3. Create an inclusive environment: Encourage teamwork and collaboration rather than focusing on individual successes. This promotes understanding among peers about differences in ability levels.

4. Emphasise predictable routines: Structure makes students feel more secure when engaged in learning environments that could otherwise feel chaotic for a child with social, emotional or behavioural challenges.

5. Offer choices: Allow pupils to choose between different options or elements of a task where possible. Providing a sense of control over their own learning increases motivation and engagement.

6. Use visuals: Reinforce spoken instructions with visual explanations like diagrams, written instructions or videos. This may provide alternate ways for students to understand concepts.

7. Apply reinforcement strategies: Positive reinforcement and encouragement can motivate students to participate more actively in PE classes. Creating measurable goals for individual pupils can help them recognise their progress over time.

8. Focus on social skills: Develop activities that promote communication, cooperation, and problem-solving. These not only improve the student’s ability to interact with others but also foster an environment of collaboration and understanding among classmates.

9. Staff training: Equipping PE teachers with the necessary skills and knowledge to accommodate pupils with SEBD is vital for creating a truly inclusive environment.


By addressing the unique challenges faced by pupils with social, emotional, and behavioural difficulties, schools can ensure that all students benefit from quality Physical Education classes. By implementing inclusive practices such as relationship-building, adapting activities, predictable routines, and personalised goal-setting, educators can make PE accessible and enjoyable for all students, ultimately creating empowering learning experiences for everyone involved.