A Newton meter is a piece of equipment used to measure the forces acting on an object. It is also known as a spring balance or spring scale.
Newton meters contain a spring connected to a metal hook. The spring stretches accordingly when a force is applied to the hook. The bigger the force used, the more the spring will stretch.
Newton meters come in different shapes and sizes. They have different-sized springs to measure objects of different weights. When using Newton meters, you must make sure that you are using the correct sized spring to ensure the reading of how many Newtons it is, is as accurate as possible.
Newton meters that can withhold high-load capacities are frequently suspended from crane hooks and are sometimes referred to as crane scales. Newton meters used within the household are referred to as fish scales.
To understand what a Newton Meter is and why they are used, we should first look at what a Newton is and learn a little more about the history of Newton.
So, what are Newtons?
A Newton (N) is the international metric unit of force. One Newton is the force required to accelerate an object with a mass of one Kilogram, one meter per second squared. In simpler terms, one Newton is equal to one-kilogram meter per second squared.
Newton meters measure the forces acting against any given object. The greater the force, the larger the number of newtons shown on the newton meter.
The forces acting on an object still or on the ground are balanced. These acting forces are measured in Newtons (N), but they balance each other out, which is why the object does not move.
If an object is in motion (i.e., if it’s moving), then one force has to be stronger and, therefore, the predominant force compared to the other forces acting upon it. This means that the forces acting on the object are not balanced.
The force acting on an object (when the forces are unbalanced) is called the resultant force. For example, the forces acting on a cyclist to help them move forward. The force of the cyclist pushing forward on the pedals is stronger than the forces acting on the cyclist to stop its movement. Therefore, the cyclist moves forward.
The size of the resultant force is measured in Newtons (N).
Who Invented Newton Metres?
Sir Isaac Newton came up with the theory of gravity and the idea that forces cause objects to move. He was born in 1643 and worked in many areas of mathematics and physics throughout his lifetime. He developed his theories about gravity and gravitation when he was only 23 years of age.
Newton’s ideas and theories were some of the most integral discoveries in the history of science. His theory of classical mechanics was one of the most significant achievements in science ever.
However, he did not technically invent the Newton meter – it was named after him and the ideas and theories he developed about gravity and forces.
Richard Salter made the first Newton meter (or spring scale) in Britain in 1770. You may recognize the name ‘Salter’ as it is one of the UK’s most popular weighing scale brands, even hundreds of years after Richard Salter first introduced his company.
Some people still use Newton meters as a household weighing scale, although they are known not to be very accurate, so maybe stick to regular scales…
More About Sir Isaac Newton
Sir Isaac Newton advanced previous scientists’ theories and ideas. Without these last scientists, he would not have been able to make the discoveries that he went on to make.
Sir Isaac Newton organized his theories into three fundamental laws of motion:
- Something will remain still unless a force is applied to it (for example, a football on the ground won’t move unless you kick it.) This law also states that if an object moves, it will continue to move in the same direction at the same speed unless a different force is applied.
- Acceleration (speeding up) occurs when a force is applied to an object. The heavier the object, the more force needed to be used to accelerate the thing.
- For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. This means that another force will act in the opposite direction for each force applied to an object.
Newton also conducted light and color experiments, influencing our understanding of colors today. For example, Newton came up with the color spectrum and proved how light and refraction affected what color an object is seen as.
How to Use a Newton Meter or Spring Scale
Newton meters are straightforward to use. There is a metal hook on the Newton meter that you use to attach the object that you would like to measure force for.
There is also such a thing as a digital Newton meter. This acts the same as a regular Newton meter but digitally presents the results of the Newtons acting on the object you are measuring.
There are different types of spring scales that have other strength springs. The weaker springs are only designed to hold and measure the force of lighter objects, whereas the heavier springs require a lot of weight and force to be effective.
You must select the correct spring scale/newton meter for the appropriate item you are trying to use.
Top tip: ensure the indicator on your Newton meter is on ‘zero’ when you start measuring the Newtons of an object. If it’s not on ‘zero,’ your results will likely be inaccurate.
How Do You Calculate Measure Force Using a Newton Meter/Spring Scale?
Newton meters are often used in science classes in Key Stage 3 to help teach students about forces.
Using a newton meter on an object (like a rucksack full of school books, for example) will show you the forces acting on this object.
As Newton theorized, every object has at least two forces acting on it at any given time. For a thing that is still and attached to a Newton meter, there is the tension (T) force of the scale which acts upward from the object (i.e., pulls it up), and the weight (g) of the object which acts downward (i.e., pulls it down) from the thing. This can be visualized in a diagram:
Because the forces are equal and the object is still, the tension and the weight are equal, so the object’s weight will be balanced. Below is an example of a thing where two forces (T and g) are acting on it and are balanced.
We must remember that not all objects have equal forces acting upon and against them. You can still use a Newton meter when unbalanced forces are acting on an object. When the forces acting on an object are not balanced, you are usually required to work out the overall forces acting on an object and the more prominent force at play.