Teaching Strategies, Tactics, and Methods

What is Musical Notation?

Music notation is the symbol used in written music. Music notation, or music notes, lets players know which letter to play and how long to play it. Remembering your music or having other musicians play it is also essential.

There are other ways of writing down music. Rhythm notation is used for drums and percussion instruments, while bass and guitar players can read guitar tablature – also known as ‘tabs’ – instead of standard Music Notation. But today, we will look at Western notation, where notes are written on the staff.

Origins of musical notation

Music has been a feature of most cultures for thousands of years, but the earliest examples of written music using musical notation were written around 1400 BC in modern-day Iraq. Although the note was much different from the sheet music we’re used to seeing today, it shows that humans have always been interested in finding ways to represent and preserve music by writing it down.

However, it was in the 11th century that staves with multiple lines were introduced. Guido D’Arezzo, an Italian music theorist, was the first to submit a standard form for all notes and a four-line team with more lines added in the 12th and 13th centuries. Finally, thanks to the invention of the printing press in the 15th century, sheet music was more widely available and allowed more people to learn to read music.

What is the staff in music notation?

Music notation is written on sets of five lines known as the staff (pl. staves). It can be understood like a graph, with information on the horizontal and vertical axes. The horizontal axis tells us about rhythm: how long notes are played for and when. The vertical axis tells us about what pitch the notes we play are. Letters are placed higher and lower on the staff, with specific line spaces indicating the angle. Sometimes messages go higher or lower than the staff. In these cases, ledger lines can be added.

What are staff notations?

The staff itself gets divided up with vertical lines. These can mean different things, as you can see below:

What are clefs in music notation?

The clef appears on the staff at the beginning of a line of music to tell you what pitch the proceeding notes are. The meaning of notes in the lines and spaces (mentioned above) depends on the clef. So, a note on the first line in the treble clef is E, but in the bass clef, a note on the first line on the staff is G.

The picture on the right shows the treble clef, and the image on the left shows the bass clef.

What are the names of the musical notes?

Children will need to learn to recognize the different types of musical notes to read musical notes. In English-speaking countries, the messages are named with letters: A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. They have no particular start or end – there isn’t a ‘first’ note – but they are always in that order.

Children usually learn to read music notes by learning mnemonics. These go from the bottom of the staff to the top.

  • Treble clef lines: Every Green Bus Drives Fast — the notes are E, G, B, D, and F.
  • Treble clef spaces: The notes in the triple clef spaces spell FACE – remember ‘FACE in the space.’
  • Bass clef lines: GreatBigDogsFightAliens. The notes are G, B, D, F, and A.
  • Bass clef spaces: All Cows Eat Grass. The notes are A, C, E, and G.

What are accidentals in musical notation?

Each note can also be ‘sharp’ or ‘flat.’ These are in between the notes named above. To sharpen a note is to play it one semitone higher, and to flatten a note is to play it one lower. This means that the same note can be referred to in different ways. For example, ‘C♭’ is a B because B is the note of a semitone below C, and C can be referred to as ‘B♯’ because it is one semitone higher than B naturally (♮).
The ‘natural’ symbol (♮) means that the note is played without being sharp or flat. You will see the natural symbol if a message was marked dull or sharp earlier in the bar and needs to be ‘reset’; or if the note appears as part of the key signature. These symbols are all known as ‘accidentals.’

What are key signatures in musical notation?

Key signatures appear at the beginning of a line of music before the time signature. There will be several sharps, flats, or none in this space. The sharps or apartments will be on different lines and areas of the staff – just like musical notes – and will tell us that these notes are to be played sharp or flat (depending on the symbols in the key signature). This will apply throughout the piece of music unless there is an accidental on the staff by a particular note or a new key signature is indicated.

How duration is shown in musical notation

What are the different types of musical notes?

Each musical note is worth an amount of time in the music, measured in beats or fractions of beats. Together, they make a rhythm.

Each musical note also has its symbol. These are:


The semibreve is worth four beats and is written as an oval-shaped zero. The oval-shaped part of this musical notation symbol is called the note head.


Minims are worth two beats. This musical notation’s symbol is like a semibreve with a line (stem) from the right-hand side.


The crotchet is worth one beat. To draw one, do the same as you would for a minim but with the note head filled in.


Quavers are worth half a beat. It’s written like a crochet but with a tail coming out the side of the stem. Sometimes quavers are ‘beamed’ together. These are shown with their tails joined across the top.


Semiquavers are worth a quarter of a beat. This is written just like a quaver but with two tails coming out of the stem. Just like quavers, semiquavers can be beamed together. Semiquavers and quavers can also be beamed together.

What are the different types of musical rests?

Rests are just like notes in that they indicate how long something happens, but rests indicate a moment of silence in the rhythm or melody.

Time signatures

Time signatures refer to the number and types of notes in each music bar. A specific number of music notes are allowed in each bar. The time signature determines the number of letters allowed in the bar.

Time signatures are composed of two numbers: a top number and a bottom number. We can have 2/4 time, 4/4 time, and 3/8 time, to name a few.

The top number tells us how many beats are in a bar. The bottom number tells us the type of beat. For example, ‘2’ means a minim beat because a minim is half of a semibreve, ‘4’ implies a crotchet beat because it is a quarter of a semibreve, and ‘8’ means a quaver beat.

Take the 2/4 time signature as an example. The ‘2’ on the top means two beats in a bar. The ‘4’ means that we have a crotchet beat. So in 2/4 time, you have two crotchet beats in a bar.

Other music notation

Many other musical notations can appear in written music, but you don’t need to know these to get started with reading and understanding musical notation. For the curious, these can include:

Staccato is indicated with a dot above or below a note. It means to play the marked notes in a spiky, detached way. On the piano, this is done with a bouncy, jabbing movement.

Slurs show that the phrase should be played smoothly and as one ‘sentence’.

Ties are marked with the same line as a slur but mean something different. For example, an offense will cover a group of other notes, but a tie will appear above or below two of the same note. This means that the note is held for the duration of the total value. e.g., a tied crotchet and minim would be held for three beats.

Ermata means that the marked note is held for longer than usual. But how long for? That is up to the musician and the conductor in larger ensemble pieces. The answer is that it is held for as long as the musicians feel it is necessary for the emotional resonance of the note. Rests can also be marked with a fermata.

Ornaments in music are the same as any other type of ornament – they decorate the piece but aren’t necessary to complete the main melody and aren’t an essential part of the rhythm. They include trills, upper and lower mordents, and grace notes like acciaccatura and appoggiatura.

How to Divide Fractions?

Knowing how to divide fractions is easy once you’ve got to grips. We first need to take one of the fractions in our problem and invert it so that the numerator and denominator have swapped places. Once that’s done, we multiply both of the numerators and both of the denominators. Finally, we simply down the final answer if we can. Let’s work through an example together:

  1. As you can see, we’re trying to divide 2/5 by 2/3.
  2. We first need to take 2/3 and flip it, meaning it now becomes 3/2.
  3. We can now change our division problem into a multiplication one. So the new situation that we’re currently solving is 2/5×3/2.
  4. Our next step is multiplying the numerators to give us 2×3=6, followed by the denominators, which provide us 5×2=10.
  5. We’ve now reached an answer of 6/10.

This can be simplified, so our final answer is 3/5.

Let’s try another example step-by-step:

  1. This time, we’re going to work out 5/6 ÷ 2/3.
  2. Let’s flip 2/3, meaning that it’s now become 3/2.
  3. The new problem that we now need to solve is 5/6×3/2.
  4. It’s time to test our multiplication skills! Our numerators multiply to give us 5×3=15, while our denominators multiply to give us 6×2=12.
  5. Our answer for this one is an improper fraction, as it gives us 15/12.
  6. We can simplify this down firstly to 1 and 3/12.
  7. Finally, we can simplify 3/12 down to 1/4, meaning that our final answer is the mixed number 1 1/4.

What is the Pacific Ocean?

What is an ocean?

As your class is discovering the Pacific, it would be excellent to explain exactly what an ocean is. Oceans are large bodies of salt water that cover much of the Earth. The combination of oceans amounts to 71% of our world. This is an unbelievably large amount. You can explain to your class that if you count all the countries, continents, and islands, there is more than double the amount of ocean.

This means that the ocean is a fascinating part of the world with so much to learn and discover. There are about 352 quintillion gallons of water in the oceans. In other words, it is 352 billion gallons.

There are seven oceans in total. These are below:

  1. The Arctic – At the top of the Earth, surrounding the North Pole.
  2. The North Atlantic – Largely between North America and Western Europe.
  3. The South Atlantic – The water between Latin America and Western Africa.
  4. The North Pacific – On the western side of North America and East Asia.
  5. The South Pacific – Between the eastern side of Australia and South America.
  6. India – Surrounded by Western Australia, East Africa, and India.
  7. The Southern – Covering the Antarctic continent.

Many people believe the Mediterranean is also an ocean. However, that is a basin of water connected to the Atlantic. The water from the Mediterranean comes through the Strait of Gibraltar, a 36-mile stretch of water between Spain and Morocco.

While humans have visited most stretches of land, there is still a lot of the ocean that has never been explored. This is large because of its great depth, temperatures, and simply the sheer expanse of it. This could easily mean that there are a lot of animals in these waters that human beings are unaware of.

How was the Pacific Ocean formed?

It is believed the Pacific Ocean formed a whopping 250 million years ago. Before this, continents were bunched together and existed as a supercontinent called Pangaea. So you can imagine the Earth’s land mass like jigsaw pieces. At this point, Pangaea was surrounded by one great superocean called Panthalassa.

When Pangaea started to break away due to the tectonic plates, it eventually caused the seven continents (Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America) to form. The result of this also broke up the superocean and created the Pacific, among others

What is the Pacific Ocean?

The Pacific Ocean covers around one-third of Earth’s surface, making it the largest ocean in the world. It contains more than half of the free water on Earth! As a result, it has more than double the volume of water than the Atlantic Ocean, which is the next largest.

So, why is it called the Pacific Ocean? When explorer Ferdinand Magellan came across this unknown ocean in 1520, he called it the ‘pacific,’ which means peaceful. It is believed that he chose this word as the water looked very calm and tranquil.

Pacific Ocean Facts for Kids

To get started, here are five fascinating Pacific Ocean Facts for Kids to whet your appetite.

  1. The Pacific Ocean has most of the islands in the world (around 25,000!)
  2. It’s bigger than the total size of all the continents on Earth combined.
  3. The deepest spot on Earth can be found in the Pacific Ocean. It’s called the Mariana Trench.
  4. The Pacific Ocean is home to many fascinating creatures and the world’s largest living structure – the Great Barrier Reef.
  5. The furthest place from land, Point Nemo, or the “oceanic pole of inaccessibility,” can be found in the Southern Pacific Ocean. It’s so far from land that the nearest humans are often the astronauts aboard the International Space Station.

Where is the Pacific Ocean located?

The Pacific Ocean covers approximately 63 million square miles, reaching the shores of Antarctica, North and South America, Asia, and Australia. Due to ocean circulation, the Pacific Ocean is split into two separate volumes of water, known as the Northern Pacific Ocean and the Southern Pacific Ocean, which meet at the equator.

What wildlife calls the Pacific Ocean home?

Scientists believe around one million species call our world’s oceans home. Due to it being so large, the Pacific Ocean, in particular, is home to many fascinating species. From tiny shrimp to the colossal blue whale, you’ll find a huge array of creatures, big and small, many of which can’t be found anywhere else on the planet.


Many birds live near and feed on the Pacific Ocean. The albatross is one of the most common birds living along the Pacific coastline. They are the seabirds with the longest life expectancy and can live to around 40-50 years old. The wandering albatross, most commonly found in the South Pacific, are among the largest seabirds. They have the largest wingspan of any bird in the world, reaching an average length of 12 feet.

You can also find penguins living along the coast of the Pacific Ocean, including the Galápagos penguin that lives in the Galápagos Islands in the North Pacific. The Galápagos penguin is the only penguin found north of the equator. All others live in the southern hemisphere, like the Humboldt penguin. This small penguin lives in South America, along the Pacific coast. This is the only place in the world where you’ll find wild Humboldt penguins!


You can find a variety of mammals in the Pacific, starting with whales. There are thought to be over 20 species of whales in the Pacific Ocean, including the blue whale, humpback whale, sperm whale, and orca (also known as a killer whale).

As well as whales, you’ll also find dolphins, like the Pacific white-sided dolphin, living in the temperate waters of the North Pacific Ocean. Bottlenose dolphins can also be found in the Pacific, ranging from the shores of northern Japan to California, Australia, and Chile.

You’ll also find a range of seal species in the Pacific Ocean, most commonly swimming in the waters of the North Pacific or lounging on the rocky islands along the coast. Some common seal species in the Pacific include the large Elephant Seal and the Fur Seal. Did you know that the Elephant seal can dive to 3,000 feet? That’s deeper than any other seal species!


When many people think of sharks, they think of the fearsome Great White who swims in the cold, deep waters of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. However, it’s good to remember that over 500 species of shark are across our planet’s oceans! For example, there are thought to be over 37 species of shark living in the Pacific, including the hammerhead, mako, blue, and goblin shark.

The Pacific Ocean is also home to the largest type of ray in the world – the Giant Oceanic Manta Ray. They have an average wingspan of almost 9 meters wide and can weigh over 2,400 kg. That’s around the same weight as an adult Black rhinoceros!

Other animals you can find in the Pacific Ocean include:

  • Sea Turtle
  • Sea Otter
  • Octopus
  • Giant Squid
  • Dugong

How deep is the Pacific Ocean?

The Pacific Ocean is so deep that if you were to drop a pebble into the deepest part, it would take over an hour to reach the seabed at the bottom.

The Pacific is the deepest ocean, with an average depth of 4,000 meters. The deepest point on Earth is also found in the Pacific Ocean. It’s called Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench and reaches a depth of 10,928 meters. That’s even deeper than Mount Everest is tall. That means if you put Mount Everest at the bottom of the Mariana Trench, it would still be over 2,000 meters below the surface!

The Mariana Trench

The Mariana Trench is located in the South Pacific Ocean, east of the Philippines and around 120 miles east of the Mariana Islands. It’s so deep that only three people have ever reached the planet’s deepest point, Challenger Deep. Two explorers, Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard, managed the descent in 1960. Then, in 2019, Victor Vescovo descended to the bottom four times, becoming the first person ever to dive into Challenger Deep more than once.

As you venture further and further into the depths of the Mariana Trench, temperatures drop to a bone-chilling 1 to 4 °C. However, about a mile into the trench, you could discover temperatures on the opposite side of the scale. There you can find hydrothermal vents that can reach temperatures of 400 °C. That’s hot enough to melt solid metal.

Due to the Mariana Trench’s extreme temperatures and lack of light, many strange and extraordinary creatures live in the depths. These include the seadevil angler fish, frilled shark, deep-sea dragonfish, and the dumbo octopus.

The coastline of the Pacific Ocean

Being the largest ocean on earth, the Pacific shares its coastline with many different countries – 36 of them, to be exact! Some of the countries that border the Pacific Ocean include:

  • Australia
  • Canada
  • China
  • Japan
  • Philippines
  • Mexico
  • Alaska
  • Chile

Many beautiful islands and archipelagos are also found in the Pacific Ocean. Over 25,000, to be exact! An archipelago is a large group of islands, such as Fiji or the Hawaiian Archipelago. Some of the largest archipelagos are in the Pacific Ocean, including Japan, the Philippines, New Zealand, and Indonesia. Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world, with over 17,500 islands.

The Pacific Ocean also has a 25,000-mile coastline of volcanoes known as the Ring of Fire. This is a horseshoe-shaped line around the edge of the Pacific Ocean which is home to around 75% of the world’s volcanoes and 90% of the world’s earthquakes. There are at least 452 volcanoes in the Ring of Fire, including:

  • The Cascade Volcanic Arc
  • Mount Tamora
  • Popocatépetl
  • Mount Ruapehu
  • Mount Fuji
  • Krakatoa

You can also find many atolls in the Pacific Ocean. Atolls are living coral islands or reefs surrounding a lagoon, a body of water separated from the sea. Atolls in the Pacific include Bikini Atoll; Nanumea; Rongerik Atoll; Kure Atoll; and the Tubbataha Reef.

Most of the world’s atolls are found in the Pacific and the Indian Ocean, and the Pacific also has the largest number of coral species in the world. The Pacific Ocean is also home to the Great Barrier Reef. This is the largest coral reef in the world, covering around 133,999 square miles. It’s so big that it can be seen from the moon!

Why is it important to protect the Pacific Ocean?

As everywhere in the world, the Pacific Ocean is threatened by global warming and climate change. As the temperature rises, so do the Earth’s water levels. However, the Pacific rises about 2-3 times more than other oceans. This can be because of its proximity to Antarctica and its already copious size.

This poses a great risk to Pacific Islands, as they can lose a lot of land mass. Moreover, the temperature of the Pacific is rising. This can cause problems such as the corrosion of coastlines, the death of marine life, and the bleaching of coral. This would be a great shame because the ocean is rampant with activity and beautiful things to see. A notable example of this is the Great Barrier Reef, off the coast of Australia. This has been listed as one of the natural wonders of the world. However, much of the reef has been transformed because of rising temperatures and pollution. The usual bright colors have turned white, and animals are reduced. A worrying fact is that the Barrier Reef has lost over half of its coral since 1995.

Global warming has also affected the usual cycle of rainfall on the Pacific Islands. This has caused droughts and harmed the ecosystem and food production. Due to this, islands in the Pacific are some of the locations that could be most at risk from climate change. However, by monitoring gas emissions, remembering to recycle, and being conscious of your carbon footprint, you will be able to help preserve the many wonderful things in the Pacific.

What is an Element?

An element is a pure substance made of one kind of atom. It cannot be split up into anything simpler without losing its characteristics.

Elements are the building blocks for everything in the world. The elements can be solid, liquid, or gas, depending on their temperature.

An element is a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances.

Periodic Table of elements

The periodic table of elements shows all the matter on earth in order of the period it was discovered. All case on the ground is made from ingredients or combinations of features.

The elements are sorted into groups and periods according to their properties.

An element comprises only one type of atom, be it a single atom, a molecule, or several atoms joined together.

The periodic table includes all discovered elements. Carbon dioxide and water, however, are compounds, as they contain a combination of factors.

Each square on the table includes a number and letters.

The letters are the chemical name for the element; for example, Hydrogen is H. However, gold is Au which comes from its Latin name, Aurum.

The atomic number is the number of protons each atom contains.

The mass number is the atom’s total number of protons and neutrons.

Atoms are the tiniest particle of a chemical element. There are presently 118 known details. However, only 94 are believed to exist on our planet naturally.

Are there elements in the human body?

Yes, there are elements in the human body! Everything comprises factors, including plants, animals, and humans. About 99% of the human body shall consist of six elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus, although another 0.85% is made up of parts, we need in much smaller amounts, including potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine, and magnesium.

We need all 11 of these elements for our bodies to work since they provide the chemical building blocks that our bodies need to perform key functions: calcium, for example, is vital for bone development, and without enough of it in our diets, or enough of the vitamins we need to help our bodies use it, our bones become weak and brittle. In addition, these elements are the basis

We also contain other trace elements within the body in addition to this key 11. Still, they’re in such tiny amounts that all of them together make up a smaller part of the human chemical makeup than Magnesium, which makes up only 0.1% of the body’s mass. So while scientists believe they’re also essential for life, it’s not 100% clear what they do within the body; we can only say that there’s strong evidence that we need these tiny trace elements to stay alive.

What is the Biggest Moon in the Solar System?


Ganymede is the name of the biggest moon in the solar system. This moon, which belongs to Jupiter, is not just the biggest moon in the solar system; it is also bigger than some planets. Read on to explore what Ganymede is really like.

Key features


Interestingly, evidence has been found by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope of an underground ocean on Ganymede. This ocean, made up of salt water, is believed to have more water than is on the entirety of Earth’s surface. This huge amount of water has a thickness of 60 miles (ca. 97 km). To put this into perspective, Earth’s ocean is only around 6 miles (ca. 10 km) thick, making Ganymede’s a whopping ten times thicker! Moreover, this massive ocean is believed to be buried deep under a crust around 95 miles (ca. 153 km) wide and made up mostly of ice. Identifying this ocean is fascinating and a huge step in researching whether there are habitable planets beyond Earth.

Magnetic field

Another key feature of Ganymede is that it has its very own magnetic field. While it is common for some planets to have their magnetic fields, it is not typical for moons to have their own. Ganymede is the only moon in our solar system that is known to have a magnetic field. Because Ganymede is close to Jupiter, its magnetic field lies within the planet’s magnetic field. This means that when Jupiter’s magnetic field changes, it causes Ganymede’s auroras, strips of electrified gas that circle the moon’s north and south poles, to change. Specifically, when the magnetic field on Jupiter changes, Ganymede’s auroras begin to rock back and forth.


There are two distinct terrain types on the solar system’s biggest moon. The first type of terrain is bright areas of ridges, and grooves, which cut across the second type of terrain, which is the older, darker areas.


Ganymede is the largest of Jupiter’s four moons, also known as the Galilean moons. This is because they were first discovered by the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei in 1610. The discovery of the Galilean moons was significant, as it was the first time a moon was seen to be orbiting a planet besides Earth. This information was vital in leading scientists to conclude that the planets in the solar system orbit the Sun, not Earth.

Naming process

The biggest moon in the solar system gets its name from a figure in Greek mythology. Ganymede was supposedly the name of a beautiful young boy carried by Zeus to Olympus while disguised as an eagle. After this, Ganymede became the cupbearer for the Olympian gods.

Potential for life

As mentioned above, Ganymede has its ocean, so scientists believe the moon could support some life.

There has also been evidence found of a thin oxygen atmosphere on Ganymede.


Okay, we know that Ganymede is the biggest moon in the solar system, but how big is it? First, let’s get into some stats:

  • Ganymede has a radius of 1,635 miles (ca. 2,631 km), which makes it bigger than the planet, Mercury, and the dwarf planet, Pluto.
  • Ganymede has a circumference of around 10,272 miles (ca. 16,531 km).
  • Ganymede has a volume of around 47,413,422,486 miles3
  • Ganymede has a surface area of about 54,059,086 miles2

Orbit and rotation

Ganymede orbits around Jupiter at a distance of around 665,000 miles (ca. 1,070,214 km). The positioning of the Galilean moons in order of closeness are:

  • Io: 262,200 miles (ca. 421,970 km)
  • Europa: 417,000 mi (ca. 671,096 km)
  • Ganymede 665,000 miles (ca. 1,070,214 km)
  • Callisto: 1,170,000 mi (ca. 1,882,932 km)

One orbit of Jupiter takes Ganymede, the equivalent of around seven days on Earth. An orbit around the Sun takes much longer. Along with Jupiter, Ganymede completes one orbit around the Sun every 12 Earth years.

Ganymede, along with the moons, Io and Europa, is in a resonance pattern. This means that, for every time that Ganymede orbits Jupiter, Europa orbits twice, and Io orbits four times. This resonance is significant because it causes the orbit of the moons to take on a slightly elliptical shape, as opposed to the typical circular orbit other moons have.


Ganymede was formed from the same material as Jupiter’s other large moons. This material is believed to have been leftover from when Jupiter condensed out of the initial cloud of gas and dust around the Sun. This event was very early on in the history of the solar system. Ganymede is believed to be around the same age as the rest of the solar system, making it around 4.5 billion years old.


In terms of structure, Ganymede is split up into three main layers:

  1. A metallic iron core at the center of the moon
  2. A spherical shell of rock around the body (known as the mantle)
  3. A spherical surface largely made up of ice surrounds the body of the stone.

The moon’s surface is the top of the ice shell, where scientists have discovered a range of irregularly shaped bumps. These bumps are considered rock formations that have been around for billions of years.

The biggest moon in the solar system

After Ganymede, these are the largest moons in the solar system:


Titan, which orbits around Saturn, is the second-largest moon in the solar system. This moon was discovered in 1655 by a Dutch astronomer, Christiaan Huygens, and it has a radius of about 1,600 miles (ca. 2,575 km). The atmosphere on this massive planet is super dense, much like the atmosphere on Earth. It is composed largely of nitrogen, with the remainder being made up of methane and small amounts of ammonia, argon, and ethane. In terms of its structure, Titan primarily consists of ice and rocky materials.

For Titan, one orbit of Saturn takes the equivalent of around 16 Earth days. This moon also has a range of seas and lakes on its surface, all of which are filled with what’s known as liquid hydrocarbons (unprocessed oily liquids extracted from natural gas). A fun fact about this massive moon is that it is the only body in our solar system, aside from Earth, to contain bodies of water.

Like many other planets and moons, Titan gets its name from Greek mythology. Specifically, this moon is named after a group of ancient gods called Titans.


Callisto is another of Jupiter’s huge moons. It is the second-largest moon in Jupiter’s orbit and the third-largest moon in the entire solar system. This moon’s radius was around 1,497 miles (ca. 2,409 km), and its surface was covered in craters. In terms of its composition, the moon is primarily made up of water ice and contains materials like magnesium and hydrated silicates. The surface of Callisto has a dark appearance and is believed to have a saltwater sea lying beneath it.

Callisto is believed to be around 4.5 billion years old, the same age as the rest of the solar system, and was discovered by Galileo Galilei on the 7th of January, 1610. After its discovery, the moon was named after a nymph in Greek mythology called Callisto.

Callisto orbits around Jupiter at a rough distance of 1,169,855 miles (ca. 1,882,699 km), making it the furthest moon from the planet. This distance means that Callisto is not affected by the magnetic field around Jupiter.

The moon takes around 16 Earth days to complete one rotation on its axis and to orbit around Jupiter.


It is the fourth-largest moon in the solar system, with a radius of about 1,131 miles (ca. 1,820 km). Galileo Galilei also discovered this moon in 1610, making it one of the Galilean moons. The surface of this moon is composed largely of floodplains of liquid rock and lava lakes, which gives it a blotchy appearance of white, red, yellow, black, and orange. Under this smooth surface, the moon has an iron core and an outer layer of brown silicate. Interestingly, Io is the body with the most volcanic activity after Earth.

This moon orbits around Jupiter at a distance of around 262,218 miles (ca. 421,999 km), and each orbit takes about 1.77 Earth days. So it will come as no shock that this moon also got its name from a figure in Greek mythology. Io is named after a nymph of the same name, who Zeus famously seduced.


The fifth-biggest Moon in our solar system belongs to our very own planet. The Earth’s moon is believed to be the youngest large object in the solar system. Scientists and astronomers have theorized that the Moon was formed out of the debris caused by an ancient giant impact. This impact is believed to have happened 50 million years after the other planets and their satellites were formed.

Like all other moons in the solar system, our moon is tidally locked to Earth. When a moon is tidally locked to a planet, it rotates simultaneously as it takes to orbit the earth. That is why we only see one side of the Moon. The basic structure and composition of the Moon are pretty similar to that of Earth rocks. This makes it stand out from all other large non-planetary objects in the solar system.


Europa is the smallest of Jupiter’s four moons. This moon is covered in a shell of ice that floats on an ocean around 40 to 100 miles (ca. 161 km) deep. While this may not seem overly inviting, Europa is the most hospitable of Jupiter’s moons. Much like the biggest moon in the solar system, Ganymede, Europa has a thin atmosphere composed primarily of oxygen.


Triton is the seventh-biggest moon in the solar system, with a diameter of around 1,682 miles (ca. 2,707 km). This is the largest of Neptune’s moons.

In terms of appearance, Triton has a partially-bumpy surface, with a selection of ice volcanoes across it. These volcanoes spew a mixture of liquid nitrogen, methane, and dust into the atmosphere, which freezes and then snows back down to the surface. Interestingly, Triton’s character is so icy that it reflects most of the sunlight that hits it, making it one of the coldest objects in the solar system (around -240 degrees Celsius).

Moreover, Triton is the only large moon in our solar system that rotates around its planet in a direction opposite to its rotation. This leads scientists to believe that, at one point, Triton was an independent object that Neptune captured. Neptune’s gravity pulls on Triton as it orbits around the planet. This causes Triton to slow down and fall closer and closer to the earth. As a result, it is estimated that millions of years from now, Triton will come so close to Neptune’s gravitational force that it will break apart.

What are the Types of Formative Assessments for Math?

Types of Formative Assessment For Math

A formative assessment is a set of casual games, activities, and tests that teachers use to regularly assess student understanding and guide how they teach classwork in the future. Formative assessments typically aren’t bogged down with paperwork and structured record keeping, as this is reserved for summative assessments like exams and end-of-year evaluations. Formative assessments cover a small time frame of weeks or terms. Some teachers may hold on to smaller topic tests as a record to show themselves, students, and parents the progress that’s being made.

How maths is taught can benefit from regular formative assessments where teachers can provide prompt and useful feedback to students – that they can use right away.

Feedback from formative assessments is useful for students as much as teachers. There’s a sense of dialogue with these tests as they allow students to tell teachers about what they might be struggling with, and teachers can support specific students on specific subjects.

Below you’ll find a series of wonderful formative math assessments that will engage students with their classwork and give crucial information to teachers.

Formative Assessments can be integrated into your normal classroom routine, and given that they are used to observe more than to collect data, you can create fun assessment options that students won’t always know are happening at all.

Four Corners

This game is a perfect chance for teachers and parents to see math skills in action. It’s a formative assessment in math where students engage in physical and mental activity. Each corner of the room represents an answer, then a teacher poses a question, and students must gather in the corner that holds the correct answer. You will be able to see clearly who might need more help, who isn’t confident, or who finds the right answer right away. Very sure students can often help explain maths to other young learners in ways adults might not have thought of. Or, you can schedule some one-on-one learning time with students who need support.

Pop Quiz

This is a classic formative assessment for maths and is one of the most useful ways to track student progress. A simple quiz at the end of a day or week to cover the new topics that students have engaged with. You can understand who might be struggling at a single glance.

A formative assessment should allow you to give feedback and support straight away. A small quiz will allow teachers and parents to offer that support immediately. If you keep track of these quizzes and record scores, it’s easy to see progress when your young learners make it. Showing these records to students can be a great motivator as they can recognize that they are improving too.

Equation Relay

This is a fun game that tests quick thinking and teamwork. Splitting students into teams of three (or more depending on the topic), each student will be given an equation to solve. The answers to the first two equations can be put into the third equation for the final team member to solve. The team that solves the most groups of equations wins. This assessment allows students to discuss their work and try to decide on a team – it’s a covert way to encourage peer-to-peer learning. You also see which sections work well and determine how easily your students take to the material.

Maths is commonly a subject that students report having difficulty understanding. So it is important to include these formative assessments for math in your learning time. The beauty of these activities is that they open a fresh dialogue between you and your students – you can keep a watchful eye on their progress and offer them help before they’re aware they’ve asked for it. It also strengthens relationships with faculty and parents – for parent meetings, they can understand the small details of their child’s development and hopefully feel more informed about their child’s place in the class.

The 7 Best Fiction Adventure Books for Your Reading Corner


What makes a good adventure story?

Adventure stories often include something exciting and extraordinary, a quest or a mission. Follow a brave hero through twists and turns that you never expected. From escaping some danger to going on a quest to discover something mystic and magical. With endless books and stories to choose from, what makes a good adventure story to share with your little ones this year?

  • A conquering hero: We all remember our favorite heroes and protagonists from our most memorable adventure tales. From Bilbo Baggins, Katniss Everdeen, Harry Potter, and Lyra Belaqua to Matilda Wormwood and Percy Jackson. This heroic main character will often be introduced to readers as an ordinary and relatable young person that your little readers can relate to, helping them feel like the hero in their adventure.
  • A swash-buckling adventure: Whether you open the pages and set sail on a pirate ship, join a daring adventure through mountain ranges, or a high-stakes mission to retrieve a long-lost treasure, adventure is the game’s name. Most adventure stories begin by issuing a fantastical challenge or task. This quest continues to ignite the story’s plot with a series of daring events that create an exciting storyline.
  • Strange and foreign lands: Whether the story launches us into a far-off and mythical land or rockets us centuries through time, adventure stories commonly take us from our familiar, everyday surroundings to a new and unfamiliar environment.
  • A villainous villain: No swash-buckling hero is complete without a brilliantly offensive counterpart. So, what makes these fictional villains so popular? The most memorable villains of these stories are highly motivated, charismatic, and developed with a mixture of positive and evil traits.
  • A daring escape from danger: What is it about fictional adventure stories that we love so much? All of the best adventure stories we can find on our shelves face some threat or risk they must escape reaching their potential or goal. These risky situations and daring escapes keep the readers on their toes and keep those pages turning again and again!

Why should you read fiction adventure stories?

Do you like reading stories that can pound your heart and keep you on your toes? Are your kids a fan of fast-paced plots full of action and surprises? If the answer is yes, fiction adventure stories are undoubtedly the right kind of book for you and your class!

Reading adventure stories in the classroom and at home is a fantastic way to encourage your students to get lost in a good book. A good adventure story can draw your children into a world or time they would have never been able to explore. Because adventure stories are so immersive, they will not know they are learning as they go! Their vocabulary, spelling, and reading comprehension will skyrocket. At the same time, they explore fantasy worlds and meet fearless and heroic characters that they will keep with them long after the last page is turned.

Rooftoppers by Katherine Rundell

A shipwreck, a young heroine, and a mysterious history, what more could your young readers ask for in their fictional adventure stories? Check out Katherine Rundell’s adventurous ‘Rooftoppers’ in paperback or e-book for your classroom reading corner. With adventure that will have your readers on the edge of their seats and a magical and heart-warming story following our young protagonists, this is a fantastic example of adrenaline-filled fiction.

Everyone tells Sophie that she was orphaned in a shipwreck – found floating in a cello case on the English Channel on her first birthday. But Sophie is convinced her mother also survived. When the Welfare Agency threatens to separate her from her guardian and send her to an orphanage, Sophie takes matters into her own hands, starting with the only clue she has – the address of a cello maker in Paris. On the run from the authorities, Sophie finds Matteo and his network of roof toppers – urchins who walk tightropes and live in the sky. In a race across Paris’s rooftops, will they find her mother before it’s too late? Hopeful, inspiring, and thrilling in equal measure, this is a classic adventure story about pursuing your dreams and never ignoring a possibility.

The London Eye Mystery by Siobhan Dowd

Siobhan Dowd is the fantastic author of the mysterious, adventurous story of ‘The London Eye Mystery’ story. Your readers can join our young detectives, Ted and Kat, on their adventures to solve the mystery of their mystery cousin in a thrilling series of twists, turns, and clues. Can you solve the mystery before time runs out?

11.32 am. – Ted and his sister Kat watch their cousin Salim get on board the London Eye. The pod rises from the ground, high above the city. 12.02 am. – The pod lands, and the doors open. Everyone exits – everyone but Salim. Has he spontaneously combusted? Has he been kidnapped? Is he even still alive? Even the police are baffled – so it’s up to Ted, whose brain runs on its unique operating system, to solve this mystery and find Salim. Teaming up with Kat, Ted follows a trail of clues across London – while time ticks dangerously.

Stormbreaker by Anthony Horowitz

‘Stormbreaker’ is a fabulous story that crackles with suspense and daring and shows that a bit of cheek will take you a long way. This adventure series is the ultimate mixture of anticipation, thrilling missions, and nail-biting discoveries. So, what are you waiting for? ‘Stormbreaker’ is the first in the Alex Rider series, followed by 12 more thrill-seeking adventure stories to discover.

They told him his uncle had died in an accident. He wasn’t wearing his seatbelt, they said. But when fourteen-year-old Alex finds his uncle’s windshield riddled with bullet holes, he knows it is no accident. He doesn’t know that his uncle was killed while on a top-secret mission. But he is about to, and once he does, there is no turning back. Finding himself in the middle of terrorists, Alex must outsmart the people who want him dead. The government has given him the technology, but only he can provide the courage.

Journey to the River Sea by Eva Ibbotson

Eva Ibbotson’s fiction adventure novel, ‘Journey to the River, is an excellent choice for your adventure-seeking little ones as they bring the Amazon rainforest alive with their imaginations. This amazing story launches young readers into exotic and foreign lands as they join Maia along her journey and adventure. The world they will encounter along the way is just as exotic as they had predicted, complete with new experiences and characters they would never have met back home. So, if you are looking for a new beautifully written and adventure-filled fiction book to add to your reading corner collection – check out ‘Journey to the River Sea’ by Eva Ibbotson to whisk your students away at reading time.

Maia feels at home in the boarding school where she lived in London in 1910. It is the only home she has known since her parents died two years earlier. However, when distant cousins are discovered 4,000 miles away, Maia must travel to Manaus’s exotic Amazon River town to live with them. She is accompanied on her journey by a governess, the imposing Miss Minton, who has her reasons for accepting a post so far from home.  With the help of her clever governess, Maia finds a brief escape from their oppressive home and makes friends with a strange Indian boy named Finn and a homesick child actor called Clovis. As she helps her new friends follow their dreams and desires, Maia learns what is most important to her and where her future will lie.

Skellig by David Almond

While most of our favorite picks pull your readers from the classroom too far off lands, if you are ready to shift gears for an adventure closer to home, try ‘Skellig’ by David Almond, a relatively short novel at 170 pages that encompasses a lot of important themes and images. This emotional and adventurous story brings together a young protagonist’s life with elements of magical realism and great humor. This book will immediately pull your little ones in as a great book for kids aged 10+ years.

‘When a move to a new house coincides with his baby sister’s illness, Michael’s world seems suddenly lonely and uncertain. Then, one Sunday afternoon, he stumbles into the old ramshackle garage of his new home and finds something magical. A strange creature – part owl, part angel, a being who needs Michael’s help to survive. Michael nourishes Skellig back to health with his new friend Mina while his baby sister languishes in the hospital. But Skellig is far more than he first appears, and as he helps Michael breathe life into his tiny sister, Michael’s world changes forever.’

Artemis Fowl by Eoin Colfer

If you are looking for fun and adventurous characters and genius fantasy plot twists, then the Artemis Fowl series by Eoin Colfer is the perfect addition to your classroom library this term! Eoin Colfer’s novel brings us along with Artemis Fowl’s story, who is the most ingenious criminal mastermind in history.  This adventure-filled book brings together the greatest minds from two completely different worlds. Both sides have tricks up their sleeves, are not afraid to play dirty, and have plenty of humor added for good measure. If you think you know fairies? Oh, how wrong you are. The adventure is calling with this series full of mythical creatures and charismatic and thrill-seeking characters.

‘At just 12 Years old, Artemis Fowl is already a criminal genius.  No scheme is too dastardly, and no plot is too devious. And he’s just discovered that fairies are real. But these are not the cuddly creatures of bedtime stories. They are armed. They are dangerous. And when Artemis captures Captain Holly Short for her fairy gold, he messes with the wrong elf. Holly isn’t armed, but she’s incredibly dangerous and pretty annoyed with all the kidnappings. Artemis Fowl is about to find out that fairies fight back….’

 Who Let the Gods Out! by Maz Evans 

Lots of children love to learn about the legends and mysteries of Greek Mythology, and ‘Who Let the Gods Out!’ by Maz Evans is the perfect combination of modern society and the long-lost stories of Greek Mythology. This great adventure story is based on Greek and Roman mythology, set in modern-day England. Full of excitement, humor, and adventure – what more could you want, right? Your students will laugh out loud and leave on the edge of their seats with every page of Maz Evan’s book.

When Eliot’s home is under threat, and his mum is ill, suddenly, nothing is going right for him. Eliot needs a hero, but he might be about to get more than he bargained for. When a shooting star crashes to earth, it lands Eliot smack bang in the path of Virgo – a young Zodiac goddess on a mission. But when the pair accidentally release Thanatos, a wicked death daemon imprisoned beneath Stonehenge, they’ve nowhere to turn for help but the old Olympian gods. Unfortunately, these gods are used to getting their way and are more than capable of creating chaos themselves. After centuries of cushy retirement on earth, are Zeus and his crew up to saving the world – and solving Elliot’s problems too?

What is Long Multiplication?

Long multiplication is an easy way to multiply two numbers that are difficult to bear. For example, you can find out that 212 x 14 = 2,968. Follow the steps below to learn how to do long multiplication to solve large problems.

It breaks down multiplication into easier steps that can be solved using times table knowledge. Learning to work out expansion at an easier level seems less daunting than long multiplication. However, our resources can make the transition process easier for young learners.

Short multiplication deals with one-digit multiplication problems only. This easier type of multiplication is commonly learned using times tables. These make expansion a breeze to understand and stick with us for life!

How to work out long multiplication:

Take the example 212 x 14.

All long multiplication questions should be laid out as below.

  1. First, take the right-most letter in the bottom number and multiply it by each of the top numbers individually. In this case, you would multiply the:

4 x 2 = 8

4 x 1 = 4

4 x 2 = 8

= 848

  1. This number would then be written beneath the line.
  2. You then do the same with the second number on the bottom – in this case, 1. As it is one position to the left of the number 4, the answer is written one space to the left under the line, like this.
    1. Finally, you add the two answers (848 and 212) from right to left using the same method as before to get the final answer. So the sums would be

    8 + (blank) = 8

    4 + 2 = 6

    8 + 1 = 9

    (blank) + 2 = 2


Long Multiplication Examples

Let’s look at a few examples to solidify your understanding of long multiplication:

Example 1: What is 112 × 28?

First, let’s lay it out in the proper long multiplication format. This gives us the following:



Step 1: Take the right-most letter in the bottom number and multiply it by each of the top numbers individually.

8 × 2 = 16

Now, we have to carry the one from the 16. So, our next sum will look like this:

8 × 1 = 8 + 1 = 9

8 × 1 = 8

= 896

Step 2: Write the number below the line.





Step 3: We’ve got to do the same thing with the second number on the bottom. Remember, the answer must be written one space to the left under the line because it is one position to the left.

2 × 2 = 4

2 × 1 = 2

2 × 1 = 2

= 224

So, this means that:






Step 4: The final step in long multiplication is adding the two answers from right to left.





224 +

The sums are as follows:

6 + (blank) = 6

9 + 4 = 13

Now, we must carry the one from the 13 to the 8. So, this will give us the following:

8 + 2 = 10 + 1 = 11

Again, we have to carry the one from the 11.

2 + 1 = 3

This gives us the final answer, which is:


Example 2: What is 431 × 15?

First, let’s lay it out in the proper long multiplication format. This gives us the following:



Step 1: Take the right-most letter in the bottom number and multiply it by each of the top numbers individually.

5 × 1 = 5

5 × 3 = 15

Now, we have to carry the one from the 15.

4 × 5 = 20 + 1 = 21

= 2155

Step 2: Write the number below the line.





Step 3: We’ve got to do the same thing with the second number on the bottom.

1 × 1 = 1

3 × 1 = 3

4 × 1 = 4

= 431






Step 4: The final step in long multiplication is adding the two answers from right to left.





431 +

The sums are as follows:

5 + 0 = 5

5 + 1 = 6

1 + 3 = 4

2 + 4 = 6

This gives us the final answer, which is:


Five Facts About Multiplication:

  1. The answer to multiplication can also be called a product.
  2. Anytime there is a zero in expansion, the answer is always zero.
  3. The 10s and one digit of a nine multiplication fact always add up to 9. For example, 9 x 4 = 36, meaning the answer is 36 when broken down to 3+6 = 9.
  4. When you multiply an even number by six, the product always ends in the same number. So, for example, 6×4= 24 or 6×2=12.
  5. Multiplying a number is another way of repeatedly adding it, so basically, it’s like repeated addition.

What is Precipitation?

What is precipitation in weather?

Precipitation is water vapor or moisture that falls from the clouds in the form of rain, sleet, snow, or hail. Any liquid or frozen water that forms in the atmosphere and falls to Earth is precipitation.

Precipitation is one of the main parts of the global Water Cycle, along with evaporation and condensation. You can read more about what happens to rainfall during the Water Cycle below.

Why does precipitation occur?

When water vapor cools, it condenses and forms clouds.

As the water vapor continues to cool, it eventually reaches the dew point, which is the point when it condenses to form liquid water.

This then falls as precipitation.

What happens to precipitation during the Water Cycle?

Precipitation is one of the key processes within the Water Cycle. The water cycle is the continuous movement of water on, above, and below the surface of the Earth. It describes the path that water from various sources takes as it moves around the planet.

At the beginning of this cycle, water is heated by the sun, causing it to turn into water vapor. This water vapor then evaporates into the atmosphere and begins to cool down. It then forms clouds and condenses, creating larger and heavier water droplets. These droplets then become so serious that they fall from the sky as precipitation. Precipitation can come in a variety of different forms, including:

  • rain;
  • snow;
  • hail;
  • sleet;
  • and drizzle.

The type of precipitation that falls from the sky depends on the weather conditions the cloud is experiencing. If a shadow is colder or at a very high altitude, it is more likely to turn its water droplets into snow and ice. If the cloud is warmer and perhaps in a more tropical environment, the precipitation will likely be rain. Most rain initially forms as snow but turns into rain as it gets closer to the warmth of the Earth’s surface.

Precipitation always falls in freshwater, despite mainly coming from the Earth’s oceans. This is because salt does not evaporate.

Once this precipitation falls back to Earth, the water finds its way back into the Earth’s waterways, and the cycle begins again.

Precipitation plays an important role in this Water Cycle. Without the falling of rain and snow on the land, waterways would quickly dry out, and the cycle would not be able to repeat and therefore recycle the water in the Earth’s atmosphere.

What is a Triceratops?

What is a dinosaur?

Dinosaurs were one of many kinds of reptiles that lived during the Mesozoic Era – a period often called the Age of Reptiles.

During the Age of Reptiles, most animals alive on earth belonged to a huge group called the Archosaurs. Archosaur means ‘ruling reptile’ – for obvious reasons. They have shared features like a special hole in their skull. Paleontologists use these features to identify different animals from fossils. Dinosaurs were just one group of archosaurs.

For as long as 160 million years in some regions, dinosaurs dominated the land. They adapted to every kind of habitat and were incredibly successful. Some dinosaurs were the size of small birds, and others were longer than three houses stacked on top of one another!

One of the reasons for their success was their straight, upright back legs. This saved them lots of energy, supported their weight better, and enabled them to move more quickly over different terrain.

Are dinosaurs alive today?

Look out of your window, or listen when you’re beside a hedge or by a tree. You may hear and see dinosaurs.

Yes, birds today are the living descendants of a group of dinosaurs!

The ancestor of birds survived the mass extinction event, which killed many dinosaurs and other animals on earth at the end of the Cretaceous period.

Modern birds and dinosaurs share some features – such as having a wishbone, brooding eggs, and, scientists increasingly believe, possessing feathers.

When did Triceratops live on Earth?

Dinosaurs like triceratops lived hundreds of millions of years ago during the Mesozoic era.

The Mesozoic era lasted 180 million years. It began roughly 250 million years ago and ended 65 million years ago (the time of the mass extinction event, which ended the Age of the Reptiles). During this era were three periods you’re probably familiar with:

  • The Triassic Period;
  • The Jurassic Period;
  • The Cretaceous Period.

Each period spanned millions of years and was characterized by unique climatic conditions and kinds of life living on the planet.

Triceratops lived 68 – 66 million years ago, during the late Cretaceous period.

Where did triceratops live?

Paleontologists (fossil researchers) have eventually discovered that triceratops lived in North America. Scientists use stone deposits around fossils to determine the most likely climate and environment in a given period and location. The fossils come from the Evanston Formation, Scollard Formation, Laramie Formation, Lance Formation, Denver Formation, and Hell Creek Formation. Scientists have discovered specimens in Colorado, Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota, and a few provinces in Canada.

Specifically, triceratops dinosaurs likely lived in dry, forested areas and plains where vegetation was plentiful. Ferns, cycads, and palms were probably abundant in these habitats.

What habitat did the Triceratops live in?

We know that Triceratops lived on Earth, but the Earth that these creatures would have known was drastically different from our own, with a different climate and environment. Researchers have used fossils and stone deposits to determine that these particular dinosaurs preferred dry forested areas that would have been home to many types of vegetation to feast upon, including ferns, cycads, and palms.

How did triceratops live?

The Late Cretaceous period was a tough world to live in for a herbivore.

Like many herbivores we know today, triceratops would graze plants like large palms in herds. Being part of a herd is great for social cohesion – it also provides a defensive strategy against potential predators.

What’s more, triceratops had two long brow horns, which could grow to be at least 1 meter long – at least, that’s what we know from fossil evidence. So these horns could have been even longer! Triceratops also had a third, shorter horn at the end of their nose.

And, there’s more – fossil evidence of bony frills and growths extending along triceratops’ necks, making it even more difficult for big carnivores to catch them by the neck.

What did Triceratops eat?

Fossils have allowed scientists to research and analyze dinosaurs’ teeth and estimate their preferred snacks and diets. With flattened teeth, we know that they were herbivores that fed on low vegetation because their heads were rather low on their body. They may have eaten a variety of palms, ferns, cycads, and other plants available then.

Who discovered triceratops?

It took a few discoveries of parts of the triceratops to determine what this animal could be.

First, a pair of brow horns attached to a skull roof was found by George Lyman Cannon close to Denver, Colorado, in the spring of 1887. Then, John Bell Hatcher discovered a whole skull at the Lance Formation, Wyoming, in 1888.

Since then, triceratops has been found in the states of Montana and South Dakota, as well as Saskatchewan and Alberta in Canada.

Triceratops has a large, sturdy bone structure, meaning many examples have been preserved well in fossils over long periods. This has meant scientists have learned a lot about triceratops and have even been able to compare different individuals!