Teaching Strategies, Tactics, and Methods

What are Adjacent Angles?

In Geometry, adjacent angles share a line and a vertex. Therefore, they must possess both qualities to make them equal grades. You can see this represented in the diagram below.

This diagram clarifies why they are called adjacent angles – they are next to each other.

Complementary angles and supplementary angles

In Geometry, adjacent angles can sometimes also be either complementary or supplementary. Complementary means the two values of the angles will add up to 90 degrees, resulting in a right angle.

Supplementary angles add up to 180 degrees, meaning that the sum also makes up a line. These adjacent angels have two lines in common.

Flag Day for Kids

What is Flag Day?

Flag Day falls on June 14th each year and is a great opportunity for us to celebrate the adoption of the United States flag. It marks the date in 1777 when the U.S. first adopted the stars and stripes as its official flag.

On this day, Congress passed a resolution that decreed the U.S. Flag would have:

13 Stripes, alternating red and white, and 13 Stars, white in a blue field.

There were thirteen stars and stripes representing the thirteen colonies that had rebelled against British rule and fought for their independence. Since then, the number of stars has changed to represent the number of states, but the number of stripes has always remained the same. (Apart from the 23 years when 15 were used!)

We’ve celebrated Flag Day for over 100 years after President Woodrow Wilson made it an official holiday in 1916. Many people mark this special date by attending special events with many flags on display!

How is Flag Day celebrated?

While Flag Day isn’t a federal holiday, it doesn’t stop many of us from celebrating this special date across the country.

Many towns and cities across the nation hold exciting Flag Day parades, which can be an amazing sight with all the flags flying around. The largest of these is held in Troy, New York, with approximately 50,000 spectators showing up yearly!

Aside from these parades, the week of June 14th is designated as National Flag Week. During this period, citizens are encouraged to fly their flags at home, while all government and official buildings will also display the stars and stripes.

10 Amazing Facts about the United States Flag

The American flag is a special symbol representing our values as a nation, so it’s no surprise that it has a fascinating history. Here are ten of our favorite facts about the famous flag:

There have been 27 different versions of the American Flag.

The original version of the flag looked very different from the flag we have today. After starting with just thirteen stars, we now have fifty stars on the flag, with one added every time a new state was added to the union. However, the number of stripes on the flag has always remained the same to remember the 13 colonies that initially made up the United States way back in 1877!

The current flag design is the only one to last for over 50 years. 

While the flag has changed many times since it was first adopted, the current design has been in place since 1960. This is likely because no new states have been adopted since this time – with the final form admitted into the union being Hawaii back in 1959!

A teenager designed today’s flag.

It was designed in 1958 by a 17-year-old high school student, Robert G. Heft, who lived in Lancaster, Ohio. He created the flag as part of a competition to design the next flag of the United States, and President Eisenhower chose it out of over 1,500 designs that were shown to him!

The Founding Fathers explicitly chose the colors of the flag.

It was no accident that the U.S. flag ended up with red, white, and blue as its colors. Red was chosen to represent valor and hardiness, blue to define justice and vigilance, and white to represent purity and innocence.

There are six U.S. Flags on the moon – but only five are still standing.

You’ll have seen Neil Armstrong’s famous flag planted into the moon’s surface, but there have been five more trips to the moon since then. Apollo missions 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 successfully made it to the moon’s surface, and each planted its flag.  Sadly, in the years since Neil Armstrong made history by being the first man to step foot on the moon, many believe that the banner fell over as they left the moon’s surface!

When a flag is badly damaged, it should be disposed of in a “dignified manner.”

To show respect to the flag, any flag damaged to the point where it can’t be repaired should be disposed of in a dignified manner. Unfortunately, one of the most common ways to do this is to burn the flag, and many towns across America hold flag-burning ceremonies on Memorial Day.

Flags can be flown 24 hours a day – so long as they’re correctly displayed.

While many believe flags can only be flown from sunrise to sunset, they can be washed 24 hours a day as long as they are adequately lit overnight. But, of course, this doesn’t apply only during “inclement weather,” such as in heavy rain, wind, or snow.

There’s a proper way to view the flag.

According to Federal flag laws and regulations, the proper way to view a flag is by facing it with your right hand over your heart. This applies to events and parades, as well as during the raising and lowering of the flag.

You’re not supposed to wear the flag.

Who doesn’t love getting decked out in stars and stripes clothing for the Fourth of July celebrations? But, according to the Flag Code, we’re not supposed to use the flag design on clothes, bedding, or other decorations.

A school teacher invented Flag Day.

Way back in 1885, a 19-year-old school teacher, Bernard J. CiGrand, asked his students to write essays about the symbolism of the American Flag. Over the next fifty years, he campaigned to make Flag Day a national holiday for us all to celebrate!

What Animals Live on Mount Everest?

Mount Everest

Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the Himalayan range. At 8,848 m above sea level, it stands almost 3000 m taller than the next closest mountain. Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay 1953, first climbed Mount Everest. Efforts to climb this mountain have gone on for several centuries since. Still, difficult weather and wind make it nearly impossible to reach the summit without suffering from altitude sickness and cold conditions.

There are two main climbing routes for Mount Everest, one of which approaches the summit from the South-East in Nepal, and the other comes from the north in Tibet. The Everest climbing route from the South-East in Nepal, known as the standard route, is not an overly difficult climb. This is one of the reasons why it draws so many climbers. However, people experience several other challenges along this route, as named above, including altitude sickness, weather, and wind. There is also a huge risk of avalanches, and climbers must tackle the Khumbu Icefall. The Khumbu Icefall is a passage of constantly-falling ice from the head of the Khumbu glacier at the point where the ice begins to melt. The Khumbu Icefall is located at around 5 486 m above sea level on the Nepalese side of Mount Everest, meaning that it is pretty close to the base camp of Everest.

The icefall is widely regarded as the most dangerous part of the trip up the standard route to the summit of Mount Everest.

Fun Fact: The border between China and Nepal runs across Mount Everest’s summit.

When was it formed?

The mountain range formed around 40 to 50 million years ago due to the northward movement of the Indian-Australian Plate but was forced downward by the Eurasian plate. The direction of Everest has been tracked since around the 1990s, and it has been found that the mountain continues to move northeast and grows by less than an inch each year.

What is Mount Everest made up of?

The mountain is made up of many types of rock and acts as a rock-like narrative, telling the tales of how Everest was formed all those years ago. It consists of layers upon the rock that are folded back on themselves, known as nappies. The top of the mountain is known as the Yellow Band, which is made of limestone and lies just below the summit. Below this are bands of sedimentary rocks that once formed the floor of the Tethys Sea. This marine area is thought to have closed when the two tectonic plates collided. On the mountain’s lower parts, metamorphic rock lies there, followed by granite that has been there for millennia.

Three flat plates, or faces, make up Mount Everest, which means that it is shaped like a three-sided pyramid. The area where each face joins is called a ridge, essentially a mountain corner. The North Face towers above the ground on the Tibetan side of the mountain. Key well-known areas on the North Face include the Great and Horbien couloirs, which are patches of incredibly steep ground. The Southwest Face is on the Nepalese side of the mountain, which surrounds the West Ridge and the Southeast Ridge. This side of Everest is also home to the Khumbu Icefall, a large pile of ice blocks that are very difficult for climbers to navigate. The East face is on the Tibetan side, surrounded by the Southeast and Northeast Ridges.

What is it like to be on Mount Everest?

The conditions on Mount Everest massively depend on what time of year it is. The number of snowfall changes between 1.5 to a 6-meter covering across the mountain’s surface. The snow covering is at its thickest in September and is at its lowest point in May after being blown away by strong winds from the northwest. The nearer the summit, the lower the oxygen levels; on the upper slopes, only a third of the oxygen is available at sea level. These low oxygen levels, temperatures, and strong winds make it very hard for much flora or fauna to grow.

January is Mount Everest’s coldest month, with temperatures dropping to -36 degrees Celsius at the summit and -60 degrees Celsius around the mountain’s lower regions. Its warmest month is July, with the conference reaching temperatures of -19 degrees Celsius. The weather on Everest is predictably unpredictable, with storms arriving unwarned and sudden, extreme drops in temperature.

The very top of Everest reaches the lower part of the Earth’s jet stream- a strong air current caused by a high contrast in air temperatures. Due to this, winds at the summit can reach around 160 kilometers per hour. Everest also has a summer monsoon season, which sees high levels of snowfall from late May to the middle of September.

Mount Everest’s rivers

Many rivers surround the mountain, which contributes to its drainage system. As it is covered in glaciers, much glacier action in the form of disposition, erosion, and transportation means that meltwater needs to leave the mountain somehow. Water from the mountain’s surface can drain on the southwest, north, and east. The Lobujya River of Nepal allows meltwater from the Khumbu Glacier to flow, which is then met by the Imja River and the Dudh Kosi River. The Arun River cuts through the Himalayas and out into Nepal and is the flow network for the Pumori and Rongbuk glaciers, which first meet the Rong River and the Kama River. If one followed the flows from the Rong, Dudh Kosi, and Kama River valleys, the summit via the mountain’s northern, southern, and eastern sides would be found.

List of Mount Everest Animals

Because of the super high altitude of Mount Everest, many people believe that it is not home to a lot of wildlife. However, this is not the case. Very few living creatures can withstand the oxygen-deprived conditions on Mount Everest’s peak, but many can survive and even thrive at the mountain’s lower altitudes. Several rare species of animals are found on Mount Everest, including:

Himalayan Tahrs

Himalayan tahrs are types of wild mountain goats that are native to the Himalayas. These goats can be found in large numbers in the Everest region of eastern Nepal. The Himalayan tahr has a distinctive look: a small head, large eyes, tiny pointed ears, and horns. Female Himalayan tahrs are lightweight, with smaller frames and horns than their male counterparts. Their thick, red wool coats also protect them from the harsh Everest environment. In terms of diet, these wild mountain goats are herbivores and primarily eat grass, leaves, and fruits. Himalayan tahrs tend to live for around 14 to 15 years.

Red Panda

Red pandas, like the Himalayan tahrs, are another species of endangered animals living on Mount Everest as their population continually declines. The biggest cause of their pending extinction is poaching, as their fur can be sold for a lot of money on the black market.

As you can probably assume from their name, red pandas have thick, reddish-brown fur that continues into a long hairy tail. The red panda’s diet consists mainly of bamboo but it also feeds on birds and insects. Moreover, red pandas are pretty timid creatures and have a solitary and territorial nature.

Snow Leopard

One of the most well-known creatures native to the Himalayas is the snow leopard. Snow leopards are stunning animals who are unfortunately considered ‘vulnerable’ by The International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species. Fewer than 10,000 adult snow leopards are in the wild, and their population is continually decreasing. The main causes of this beautiful animal’s endangerment are poaching and habitat destruction.

The snow leopard can typically be found in the alpine regions of the Himalayas at elevations between 3,000 to 4,500 m. The snow leopard has many adaptations that allow it to survive in the harsh climate of Mount Everest. These adaptations include small rounded ears that minimize the heat the leopards lose and wide paws that enable them to walk easily through the snow. The thick fur on snow leopards’ backs also helps increase their grip and steep, unstable surfaces. Moreover, snow leopards have long, thick, flexible tails that store fat and help them maintain balance on uneven terrain.

Musk Deer

Musk deer can be mistaken for small deer but belong to a completely different family. The main differences between musk deer and small deer are that musk deer don’t have antlers or facial glands and possess a specific musk gland (hence the name). In addition, musk deer tend to live primarily in alpine scrub and forests in the foothills of the Himalayas. Regarding diet, musk deer are herbivores, so they exclusively eat plants, such as grasses, leaves, woods, mosses, and lichens. Moreover, musk deer are completely nocturnal and are only active between dusk and dawn.

The musk gland is key in musk deer, as it produces secretions that attract mates during breeding. They also use their scent to mark their territory. However, musk deer are not the only ones who value their scent, as their scent glands are sold on the black market for around £33,000/kg.

Wild Yak

Wild yaks are huge creatures, the largest of the bovid (an animal of the family Bovidae) species, and are an ancestor of domestic cattle. Wild yaks are huge, regardless of gender, but females are 30% smaller than their male counterparts. These animals have a massive, bulky build that helps them endure the harsh conditions of the Everest region. They also have a thick, woolly undercoat with shaggy hair that protects them against the cold.

You will typically find wild yaks in alpine regions with thick grass at an altitude between 3,000 and 5,500 m. Despite their huge size and intimidating stature, wild yaks are herbivores. Therefore, the diet of these animals consists largely of grasses, herbs, shrubs, mosses, and lichens.

Himalayan Pika

Himalayan Pikas are tiny mammals found in the high altitudes of the Himalayas in Nepal. These mammals live in the Mount Everest region at altitudes between 2,400 to 4,200 m. this region is pretty rocky with lots of screens (collections of broken rock fragments at the base of crags, mountain cliffs, volcanoes, and valley shoulders) and coniferous forests. This is great for the Himalayan Pikas, as their diet primarily consists of grass, leaves, and plants. Unfortunately, Himalayan Pikas are pretty hard to spot as they reside in isolated areas away from human activity.

Black Bear

Himalayan black bears live in India, Bhutan, Nepal, China, and Pakistan and are a subspecies of Asian black bears. These animals prefer warm areas, so they avoid the frostier regions of the Himalayas and typically stay between altitudes of 3,000 to 3,700 m.

Black bears are omnivorous, and their diet comprises a range of acorns, fruit, nuts, and honey, as well as insects like termites, beetles, and larvae. These bears can also eat larger animals such as goats, sheep, and cattle if other food is unavailable. Unfortunately, forest fires and human intrusion into their habitat have led to black bears being listed as endangered.

Mountain Weasel

Mountain weasels favor the high-altitude environments of the Himalayas, typically living in rock crevices, caves, and tree trunks. Consequently, you will find mountain weasels in high-altitude areas from Kazakhstan to the Everest region in Nepal.

Mountain weasels are super talented creatures, capable of climbing, swimming, and running. They can do this because of their short legs and long, sleek bodies that make them agile. These animals also have incredible vision and communicate both visually and vocally with one another. However, they do not need to share that often, as mountain weasels are solitary, nocturnal animals that only meet up for mating.

Yellow-Throated Marten

The yellow-throated marten, known as the kharza and chuthraul, is native to Asia. This furry creature is the largest of the martens, a group of weasel-like carnivores. The yellow-throated marten has eye-catching fur with white, black, yellow, and brown tones. This animal is also an omnivore, so its diet consists of plants and animals. The yellow-throated marten’s diet consists mainly of fruit, nectar, and small animals like deer.

The yellow-throated marten does not have many predators, and its robust build and unpleasant odor help to deter any that come near. However, large carnivores may be preyed upon by these martens, including Siberian tigers and Asian black bears.

Himalayan Monal

The Himalayan monal is a type of pheasant that is native to the forests of the Himalayas. Thankfully, this bird is not endangered by The International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List of Threatened Species. The Himalayan monal also goes by another name, daphne, in Nepal. A fun fact about this bird is that, in Nepal, the ‘daphne’ is a national bird.

The Himalayan monal is a big pheasant, measuring about 70 cm in length. You will most commonly find this bird in the foothills of the Himalayas, spanning from Afghanistan to Sikkim. However, the Himalayan monal can also be found on grassy slopes, alpine meadows, and cliffs between 2,700 and 3,700 m. In the winter, this bird can drop to 2,000 m in length. To find food in the winter, it can dig up snow to find plant roots and insects that it can feed on.

Blood Pheasant

Last up on our list of Mount Everest animals is the blood-pheasant; the blood-pheasant is a short-tailed pheasant native to the Eastern Himalayas. This bird is fairly small in stature and is classified as a species of ‘least concern’ by The International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species. This is even though the population of the blood pheasant is in gradual decline.

There are several different threats facing blood pheasants. These threats include habitat loss, illegal harvest, fragmentation, and human disturbance. These birds are at risk because they have long incubation periods and ground-nesting habits. This makes them particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and trampling.

How Do Mount Everest Animals Survive the Cold?

Not every animal is cut out to survive in the harsh, unforgiving conditions of the Everest region. The Mount Everest animals that survive in this region have specific skills and adaptations that allow them to do so. For example, animals tend to have thick fur to keep them insulated and wide feet to help them walk across snowy and uneven terrains.

Mount Everest Facts

  • What is the height of Everest? It’s 8,849 meters tall. Sometimes the measurement varies because some count the snow cap and others do not. The size of Everest is also constantly increasing due to the movement of the tectonic plates. Some also argue that it is not the tallest mountain in the world because there is a mountain that is part underwater that is taller, but Everest is the furthest mountain away from the Earth’s center.
  • It’s made up of different types of rock. Studies have shown Mount Everest comprises many kinds of stone, including marble, limestone, mudstone, sandstone, and shale.
  • It’s home to a variety of wildlife. Even though it snows all year round on Mount Everest, it is home to some wildlife. These include jumping spiders, a high-growing flower called Arenaria, bar-headed geese, yaks (a special variety of cow), the Himalayan tahr (which is like a goat), the Himalayan black bear (which may be sometimes mistaken for a yeti), and pika (which are part of the rabbit family).
  • It’s a sacred place for many. Tibetan Buddhists believe that the southern area of Mount Everest is one of the ‘hidden valleys’ where a Buddhist saint from the ninth century found safety. There is also a well-known monastery called Rongbuk Monastery at the mountain’s base.

What is a Classification Key??

A classification key is a series of questions determining an organism’s physical characteristics. When you answer one question, it either branches off to another question or identifies the organism. Ultimately, they help to identify an unknown organism or work out how to categorize groups of similar organisms.

How do classification keys work?

There are a few different classification keys commonly used, and we’ll walk you through the three most common ones, but they all function similarly. At each stage, you have a question about the characteristics and features of the organism, and the answer narrows down the options, either leading to another question or identifying the organism. So, although it might take a while, the organism will eventually be recognized as each question gets more specific.

The most commonly used type of classification key is the Dichotomous Key. ‘Dichotomous’ means ‘split into two, which is the defining characteristic of this type of key. At each branch of the key, there are only two possible answers – almost always ‘yes’ or ‘no’ – and you decide whether the organism has a particular feature and characteristics to narrow it down, with a format that runs like a flowchart. Here’s an example, so you can see how this works in practice:

Another commonly used type of classification key is the Tabular Key. You read through the numbered items in the order in a tabular key. Each article presents two options. As you proceed, more and more information will be revealed until one of the organisms shown can be identified. When this happens, the organism’s name is stated. Now, if there isn’t enough information to identify the animal, you will be told to go to another numbered item and make another choice. Here’s an example:

The other main type of classification key is the Circular Key. Circular keys are most useful when you have a lot of organisms to sort rather than just a single one, but they can be used for individual organisms, too. To read a circular key, you first start in the middle of the circle and work your way outwards. As you go, you will choose one of the given options at each layer. When you get to the outer layer of the circle, you will have identified the organism. Here’s an example of how they work using a hypothetical set of alien organisms:

Why are Classification Keys so useful?

There’s an enormous range of life in the universe, even just among the existing organisms we know about on earth – so many that it’s impossible to grasp the sheer scale of life on Earth without a classification system to help sort the lifeforms into groups that we can then study in greater detail.

We mostly use the Linnaean classification system to help us make sense of the millions of different organisms known. Still, to classify something, we need tools to help us narrow down its characteristics and features, ruling out what it isn’t and narrowing down what it could be until we either identify an existing species or find a new group member! Classification keys are vital for this by providing a clear and straightforward framework that scientists can use during this process.

One of the most valuable benefits of classification is that it allows us to understand organisms better alive today and animals that used to exist. By carefully organizing and classifying different organisms, we can better understand how they first evolved and what they evolved from, helping us figure out how all life on Earth evolved from just a few organisms!

What is a Venus fly trap?

A Venus fly trap is a carnivorous plant; it feeds on animals and is a plant predator.

Venus fly traps are native to small coastal areas of the North American states of North Carolina and South Carolina. However, they can be grown worldwide, and many keep them as houseplants.

The Venus fly trap is best known for its namesake – its ability to trap flies and insects with the trigger hairs on its leaves that open wide and trap its prey inside.

What does Venus fly traps look like?

The Venus fly trap is a small plant measuring only up to 5 inches. It can have no more than seven leaves and typically has 4 – 7. The stem usually reaches around 4cms, with 10 being the maximum.

Its leaves are green, and the trap is red or reddish-orange. The web inside smells sweet, which helps it lure its prey in.

The Venus fly trap blooms yearly, producing beautiful, delicate white flowers that further help it attract prey. In addition, the flower is pollinated by various insects, such as bees and beetles.

What does Venus fly traps eat?

While the Venus fly trap does get some of its nutrients from the soil, sunlight, and water, its main diet consists of insects and arachnids, such as:

  • Flies
  • Ants
  • Beetles
  • Grasshoppers
  • Small slugs
  • Crickets
  • Millipedes
  • Spiders
  • Sowbugs
  • Small frogs

How does Venus fly traps to catch its prey?

Venus fly traps lure unsuspecting prey with their outward beauty, flower-like appearance, and sweet-smelling nectar, which is secreted from its open traps.

Once the prey lands in the trap, tiny hairs inside the web are triggered and snap shut with impressive speed (less than a second!). The game needs to be alive when it is on the web, as the movement

After the trap shuts, the Venus fly trap produces juices to help it digest what it has caught. These juices break down the prey, killing bacteria and extracting essential nutrients.

What are a Venus fly trap’s lifespan and reproduction cycle?

Lifespan: The typical lifespan of the Venus fly trap’s trap is pretty short. The web can only snap shut five times before it turns black and dies.

However, the Venus fly trap can grow new surprises, and the actual plant’s lifespan is much longer. It is not unheard of for these plants to live for 20 years or more!

Reproduction: Venus fly traps reproduce both asexually and sexually.

Asexual Reproduction: Here, a Venus fly trap’s root will extend into the soil to create a bulb from which the new plant develops.

Sexual Reproduction: This occurs through the pollination process.

Venus flies trap facts for kids:

  1. Venus fly traps are named after the goddess of love and beauty, Venus, due to their beautiful appearance.
  2. Although it is very quick at catching its prey, the digestion process for a Venus fly trap is pretty slow. It can take up to 10 days to digest certain insects.
  3. As well as attracting prey through its sweet nectar, the Venus fly trap can glow blue to grab the attention of flies!
  4. The hairs on the Venus fly trap have specially evolved to prevent closing for natural elements, like rainwater.
  5. It takes two stimulations of one of the hairs on the plant’s trap to trigger its speedy closing mechanism.

Elements, Compounds and Mixtures Elements, Compounds and Mixtures??

Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

What is an Element?

An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances. The smallest part of an element that can exist is an atom. A symbol represents each element. The first letter of the character is always capitalized, and any following letters are lowercase. The signs for the details are arranged on the periodic table.

What is a Compound?

A compound is a substance made when two or more elements are chemically bonded together. A diagram can represent a compound. The atoms are shown touching each other or joined by a stick that describes a bond.

Water is a compound made from one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. Its formula is H₂O.

What is a Mixture?

A mixture consists of two or more substances not chemically combined. You can have elements, compounds, or medicines containing both.

In a particle diagram of a mixture, not all of the molecules shown will be touching each other or be joined by sticks representing the bonds.

Key Vocabulary

  • Atom – The smallest part of an element that can exist.
  • Bond – An attraction between atoms or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
  • Chemical Formula – A series of chemical symbols showing the number of atoms of each element in a compound.
  • Chemical Reaction – A process that involves the rearrangement of atoms to produce new substances.
  • Chemical Symbol – A letter or series of letters representing an element, e.g., C for carbon, Na for sodium.
  • Compound – A substance of two or more elements chemically bonded together.
  • Element – A substance made of only one type of atom.
  • Metal – An element or substance typically shiny, malleable, and ductile. It normally conducts heat and electricity well.
  • Mixture – A substance consisting of two or more substances not chemically combined.
  • Non-metal – An element or substance that is not a metal.

What are the differences between compounds and mixtures?

Standard Subtraction Methods: What Are They and How Can I Help My Child with Them?

I’m baffled by subtraction methods – help!

Every generation seems to have its way of working out subtraction (or taking away). You might want to help your child with their maths but be completely baffled by the subtraction method they’re trying to use. So, do you teach them how you were taught at school so that you understand what you’re teaching them, or do you learn the method they’re trying to use?

There’s no right answer. On the one hand, subtraction is subtraction, and the best strategy is usually the best way for whoever is attempting to solve it – so there are many useful methods. But, on the other hand, if your child is learning a standard practice at school, you might make life more confusing for them by mixing up different ways.

Why so many different methods?

So let’s take you through the structure of standard methods, link you to videos that will help you to learn/teach it at any stage, and make sure you’ve got some hair left after helping your child out!

First, you’ll be thinking about how many digits (0 – 9) you’re dealing with: 2, 3, or 4. Usually, it’s going to be easier to solve 2-digit subtractions. 38 – 24 is easier than 384 – 242, after all.

But what about 38 – 19? Is that easier or harder than 384 – 242? Well, it depends on which method you’re using. 38 – 19 might be seen as more difficult if you’re doing it as a column subtraction (old-skool way of doing it)



But it is a doddle if you’re using a number line (you might end up working it out by counting on it!).

That’s the thing about arithmetic methods – part of the skill is knowing which is the most efficient way of doing the calculation – working it out in your head, jotting down some notes or drawings, or using a more formal method. And that’s why it’s handy to know many different strategies, so you’ve got them in hand to choose the best one for your calculation.

Knowing many different methods also means you’ve much more fluency in handling numbers so that when you and your child are dealing with more complex numbers and problems, your fluency in basic arithmetic isn’t going to hold you back – you’ll know it by heart. It’s a bit like being able to remember a times-table fact instantly.

In the beginning, so many different methods might be confusing, and you might be tempted to stick with a couple. That’s understandable, but you’re probably making future learning more difficult in the long run. So ensuring you’ve got the methods solidly understood and practiced is a good idea.

Standard column methods

They’re the same other than the words used – if your child’s school teaches that the 8 in 38 is a ‘unit,’ you’ll need the video ‘using digits’; if it teaches that the eight is in the ‘ones,’ column, you’ll need the video ‘using values. It’s handy for your child to know there are two ways of describing the column, but you don’t need to use both – pick one form of words and stick with it. Most English schools use ‘values.’

Number line methods

Number line methods are a brilliantly visual way of working out arithmetic problems. This is probably how you naturally work out issues in your head if you’re doing a measuring job at home. It’s tempting to think that number lines are the ‘easy’ way and you move onto column methods when you’re ‘good at it, but actually, it’s all about whichever is most appropriate for the numbers, like in the 38-19 problem earlier.

A number line can be ‘open’ – without any numbers written on it, or ‘marked’ with some or all of the numbers written on already. And children can put their marks on a number line to help them make sense of the jumps.

Using a number line in a subtraction like 43 – 38, you can count backward from 43. Or you can count forwards from 38. Either way, you’re finding the ‘difference’ between the two numbers; sometimes, one will be more efficient than the other.

Now have a nice cup of tea

Now you can have a cuppa before we get onto the next bit. Maybe a nice biscuit to get your sugar level back up. But come back again; this is where it gets really exciting!

The exciting bit – exchanging

So we’ve covered subtracting 2-, 3- and 4-digit numbers without exchanging (borrowing), but life’s never as easy as that. Let’s take a 3-digit example,

 – 169

5 Low-Maintenance Easy Pets to Take Care of

  1. Rabbits 

Arguably the cutest of the low-maintenance pets, rabbits are the best animal to welcome into your family if you’re looking for an adorable pet to care for. With various breeds to pick from, including the long-haired Lion Head rabbit and the short-haired Dutch rabbit, you can select your favorite long-eared friend to welcome into your life.

To care for your rabbit, you need to provide ample space for a buffet and a secure outdoor environment for your pet to hop around in (remember, rabbits can jump to about 1 meter high, so make sure the fence you pick is tall!). Rabbits are fun, active pets who enjoy hopping and running in a large space and enrichment to stay busy. While rabbits need feeding twice a day and cleaning out weekly, if you’re looking for an affectionate pet for yourself or your family, you’ll adore the love and joy a rabbit brings.

  1. Fish

Amusing to look at, fish has been a family favorite for centuries. There are even records of people keeping fish from the Ancient Egyptian period. So, what about these underwater creatures that we love so much?

Fish are claimed to be a great reliever of stress and anxiety, and their underwater presence has a lovely calming effect on those watching them. Keeping fish is perfect if you have a small home or no outdoor space. Suitable for any indoor environment, fish must be looked after in the correct tank, water conditions, and lighting to be happy. An ideal choice of pet for those who don’t have much free time in their lives.

  1. Hamsters 

If you’re searching for a small companion to keep in your life, then a hamster might be perfect for you. Hamsters enjoy an independent life, meaning they do not require much attention daily. However, to care for your hamster, you must scoop out their dirty bedding daily and clean their cage around once a week. Alongside their daily feeding, hamsters are one of the most easy-to-care-for pets you can buy.

  1. Guinea Pigs 

If you’re not looking for the responsibility of a cat or a dog but want a friendly, soft companion that interacts with you, then a guinea pig is your ideal answer. Easy to care for, these pets require a safe play space, daily feeding, and cleaning. Unlike hamsters, their sister species, guinea pigs can live long lives of around five to seven years, meaning that you’ll be adopting a new family member that will keep you company for a long time.

Did you know that guinea pigs jump when they’re happy? Just like rabbits, these soft animals enjoy petting and attention and show their happiness and appreciation for affection by jumping wildly.

  1. Turtles

Turtles are one of the most rapidly diminishing vertebrates on the planet. However, you can help protect this precious species by adopting your turtle to keep as a pet. While turtles need more attention than fish, this aquatic reptile is still considered an easy-to-care-for pet, needing feeding only four to five times a week and cleaning every two to three weeks. Turtles do, however, require particular conditions to be happy, such as a large tank and enough light and warmth.

Fun in nature, turtles can live for decades and are renowned for their playfulness and personalities. So a turtle could be perfect if you’re searching for a unique pet.

What is a Long Division?

Long division is a written method of dividing a large number, usually by another large (at least 2-digit) number.

How to Do Long Division with decimals and whole numbers (Steps and Explanation)

In most division calculations, the following equation is completed.

Dividend ÷ Divisor = Quotient

To complete this calculation with multiple digits, a long division is necessary. Find out how to do long division with decimals and whole numbers in the nine steps below. The full method is as follows:

  1. Put the numbers into the correct equation. Write the dividend on the right, hanging under a division symbol, and put the divisor on the left. In the example below, 591 is the dividend, and 12 is the divisor.
  2. Divide the first digit of the dividend by the divisor. If the divisor is larger than the first digit of the dividend, you will end up with a decimal less than 1. You can use a 0 in this case as a placeholder. In our example, 12 is larger than 5, so we can write a 0.
  3. Next, look at the first two digits of the dividend and try to divide them by the divisor. If this is not enough, you can keep expanding the number of digits until you get a larger number. In this case, you need to determine how many 12s there are in 59. The answer is 4 – write this answer in the appropriate place above the division symbol, ensuring columns are correctly filled out. So four needs to go above the 9. You then need to write the product of 4 and 12 (48) under 59 and subtract, giving 11.
  4. Then, you need to bring down the next digit from the dividend. In this case, it needs to be brought down – write it next to 11 to make 111.
  5. Next, work out how many 12s there are in 111. The answer is 9, so you write it above 1. Then, write the product of 9 and 12 (108) under 111 and subtract it, which gives 3.
  6. Extend 591 into decimals to continue the long division if needed. The 0 in the tenth place is then brought down and written next to 3 to make 30.
  7. Work out how many 12s there are in 30 and write the answer above the 0 in the tenth place. Then, write the product of 2 and 12 (24) under 30 and subtract it, giving 6. The 0 is then brought down and written next to 6.
  8. Finally, find out how many 12s there are in 60. The answer to this is 5, which is written above the 0 in the hundredth place. Write the product of 5 and 12 (60) under 60 and subtract it, giving zero.
  9. Round your answer up or downwards if required.

We hope this long division step-by-step guide has made it easy for children to understand how to do long division, and the steps are easy to follow. Also, look at the suggested resources at the bottom of the page, which are here to help your pupils master long division.

Long Division Examples

You’ve seen a step-by-step guide to the long division process, but things often don’t start to click in maths until we see them in practice. So, let’s go through a few examples of long division.

Why not try testing these out on your students to consolidate their understanding of long division? These word questions are great because they require kids to find the sum before they solve it.

Example 1

Laura is in charge of setting up the hall for assembly. She has 150 chairs and puts them into equal rows of 16. How many chairs are in each row?

Let’s put our number into the equation.

150 ÷ 16 = Quotient

We must go through the steps detailed above to get the correct answer.

Answer: 9.375

We can’t have 0.375 of a chair, so we round the answer down.

Answer: 9 chairs

Example 2

Matthew is going on holiday with his family. They board a large plane containing 360 seats divided into rows. Each row has eight seats. How many rows of seats are there on the plane?

Let’s put our number into the equation.

360 ÷ 8 = Quotient

We must go through the steps detailed above to get the correct answer.

Answer: 45 rows




What are Antennae?

What are antennae used for?

Antennae are sensory organs that help an insect perceive and navigate its environment. They are very clever organs, like a mix of human fingers and noses, allowing insects to understand their environment.

They are often called ‘feelers,’ but this name is less accurate, implying that insects only use their antennae for touch. The antennae also act as the ‘nose’ of the insect, interpreting environmental smells. As a result, it can help insects to find their food and stay away from predators.

Insect antennae structure

Antennae are made up of different joints, which makes them very flexible and mobile. It means that insects can move around to sense their environment and objects. So next time you see an insect, look out for its antennae and see how much they drive.

The most common type of antennae is filiform antennae. Filiform antennae contain multiple joints that are fairly equal in length and size, with the number of joints depending on the insect.

Filiform antennae are seen in various insects, including crickets, dragonflies, bees, and beetles. Butterfly antennae are also filiform antennae, with small segmented joints like the ones in the picture below.

Butterfly antennae

Butterflies and moths have antennae attached to their heads. These help them balance, especially while flying and smelling the world around them.

Butterflies have two antennae that are broken into segments. Each butterfly antenna has a small club at its end. However, moths do not have these little clubs on their antennae.

Butterfly antennae are very clever. They can also help with navigation, finding their friends, and telling the time of day. The sensors on their feet act alongside the antennae to help them find food, mate, migrate, and sleep.

Their sense of smell is essential. It means they can find flowers with lots of nectar to eat.

Do butterflies taste with their antennae?

Butterfly antennae help them with their sense of smell, which is their most essential sense. However, they do not use their antennae to taste. Instead, they have a proboscis, a long tongue they can unroll to taste and feed with. It has taste buds, which helps them identify the best plants to feed from.

If a butterfly loses an antenna, it doesn’t die. Its senses are weakened, though, as you can imagine, since it would only have one antenna to sense the world with. It means they might lose balance and be unable to sense what time of day it is, at least not as well as butterflies with both antennae.

How to tell the difference between a butterfly and a moth

Butterflies and moths look very similar, so it is easy to confuse them. They have many things in common since they are both insects with big wings covered in scales. Here are some ways to help you tell the difference between a butterfly and a moth.

One of the easiest ways to tell the difference between these two insects is to look at their antennae. Butterfly antennae have small clubs on their ends, making them look like hocvital sticks or golf clubs. In contrast, moths have antennae that are feathery with fluffy-looking edges.