When to Use Uppercase or Capital Letters

Anytime you write something, whether it’s an email or a blog post or a letter to your boss, you need to use capital letters or uppercase letters, depending on the situation. But how do you know when to use them? Here are some quick rules:

Proper nouns

Proper nouns are always capitalized. Proper nouns are specific things like people’s names, the names of cities, countries, buildings, and companies. Examples: “Elizabeth” and “London” are both proper nouns and require capitalization.


Titles that come before someone’s name are capitalized. For example, “Dr. Jones” or “President Obama.” If a title comes after the name, it should not be capitalized unless it’s a title with a specific rank like “King” or “Queen.”

The first word in a sentence

The first letter of the first word in a sentence should always be capitalized. For example, “Yesterday was a beautiful day.”


The first letter of each word in an acronym should be capitalized. Examples: “NASA” or “FBI.”

Brands and Trademarks

Brand names and trademarks should be capitalized. For example, “Nike” or “Apple.”


Grammar and language rules dictate certain things that should be capitalized, like “I” must always be capitalized.

Take note; it’s important not to use too much capitalization because it can be overwhelming. Limit your use of uppercase letters and only use them when absolutely necessary. When in doubt, double-check with a grammar guide or run your text through a grammar-checker to make sure everything is correct.     

The Secret Power of Your Mind to Become What You Think

The human mind is a powerful tool that has the ability to shape one’s perception of reality and manifest one’s aspirations into physical reality. This phenomenon is widely known as the law of attraction, which states that one’s thoughts and beliefs can influence the events and circumstances that occur in one’s life. This secret power of the mind has been documented throughout history and has been utilized by successful individuals to achieve their goals and dreams.

The principle behind the law of attraction is that our thoughts and emotions emit a specific vibration that attracts similar vibrations from the universe. For example, if one constantly focuses on negative thoughts and emotions, they are likely to attract negative experiences and circumstances into their life. On the other hand, if one focuses on positive thoughts and emotions, they are likely to attract positive experiences and circumstances into their life.

Many successful individuals, including entrepreneurs, athletes, and celebrities, have utilized the power of the mind to achieve their goals and become what they have envisioned for themselves. For example, the famous basketball player Michael Jordan had a mindset of constantly improving his skills and mental toughness, which contributed significantly to his success in the sport. Similarly, Oprah Winfrey has credited her success to her ability to visualize her goals and manifest them into reality through the law of attraction.

To harness the power of the mind, individuals must first identify their aspirations and create a clear vision of what they want to achieve in life. This involves creating a mental image of one’s desired outcome and attaching positive emotions and beliefs to that image. By doing this, one can create a powerful energy that attracts similar vibrations from the universe.

Another important aspect of utilizing the power of the mind is to remain positive and optimistic throughout the journey toward achieving one’s goals. One must develop a mindset that is resilient to setbacks and obstacles and maintains a belief in the eventual manifestation of their desired outcome.

In conclusion, the power of the mind to become what one thinks is a secret that has been utilized by successful individuals for centuries. By utilizing the law of attraction and creating a clear vision of one’s goals and aspirations, individuals can manifest their dreams into physical reality. However, it requires a resilient mindset that is positive and optimistic through the journey toward achieving one’s goals. With this, one can harness the secret power of the mind to become what they think and live a life that aligns with their aspirations.     

Smart Budgeting Tips for International Students in America

As an international student in America, managing finances can be challenging. With the high cost of living in the United States, it’s crucial to budget wisely to avoid financial issues. From housing and food to tuition fees and transportation, there are many expenses that international students need to take into account. That said, here are some smart budgeting tips for international students in America.

1. Set a realistic budget

The first step to smart budgeting is to create a realistic budget that covers all your expenses. Start by recording all your income, including any scholarships, student loans, and income from part-time jobs. Then, make a list of all your expenses, including rent, groceries, textbooks, transportation, and other bills. Compare your income to your expenses and adjust your budget accordingly. Make sure to allocate funds for unexpected expenses, such as medical emergencies or car repairs.

2. Find affordable housing

Housing is often one of the most significant expenses for international students. To save money, consider living off-campus with roommates or finding a student housing program that offers affordable rates. You can also research apartments or rental homes in less expensive areas. Don’t forget to factor in utilities and other fees when calculating housing expenses.

3. Cook your meals

Cooking your meals is a great way to save money on food. Eating out can be expensive, especially if you do it frequently. By cooking at home, you will not only save money, but also have total control over your meals. Plan your meals in advance to help you save time and money on groceries.

4. Use public transportation

Public transportation is often cheaper than owning a car. In many cities, buses and trains are available that can take you to school and other locations. Some schools also offer discounted bus or subway passes for students. Using public transportation will help you save money on gas, car maintenance, and other transportation costs.

5. Look for student discounts

Many businesses, including movie theaters, restaurants, and retail stores, offer discounts for students. Take advantage of these discounts whenever possible to help you save money. Be sure to carry your student ID with you at all times, as many businesses require it to receive discounts.

6. Avoid unnecessary expenses

It’s easy to spend money on things that we don’t need. To avoid unnecessary expenses, ask yourself if you really need something before buying it. Limit your spending on non-essential items such as clothes, gadgets, and entertainment.

These are just a few smart budgeting tips to consider as an international student in America. By setting a realistic budget, finding affordable housing, cooking your meals, using public transportation, looking for student discounts, and avoiding unnecessary expenses, you can save money and avoid financial difficulties. Remember to stay on top of your finances and adjust your budget accordingly as your circumstances change. 

Why We Must Fully Fund PreK-12 and Higher Education

Education is an essential foundation for the development of any society. It is through education that individuals acquire the knowledge, skills, and expertise that they need to become valuable contributors to their communities. Education also empowers individuals with critical thinking skills, enables them to make informed decisions, and equips them to succeed in their careers.

However, education is not a luxury that should be limited to a few privileged individuals. It is a basic human right that should be accessible to all, regardless of their social status, ethnicity, or economic background. That is why it is crucial to fully fund PreK-12 and higher education.

PreK-12 education is the foundation of a student’s learning journey. It is during this stage that students acquire fundamental knowledge like reading, writing, and mathematics, as well as critical thinking skills that will aid them throughout their lifetime. However, a significant percentage of schools in the United States suffer from underfunding, understaffing, and outdated facilities, which hinder students’ learning outcomes.

To ensure that every student has the opportunity to succeed, schools must be adequately funded. Funding for PreK-12 education should go towards addressing the root causes of underperformance, such as teacher training, technology, and extracurricular programs. Moreover, a well-funded early education system gives students a head start and sets them up for success in higher education.

Higher education is crucial for the development of a thriving society. The benefits of higher education extend beyond individual achievement and contribute to societal progress. Higher education institutions provide the necessary tools and resources to advance research and development, innovation, and technological progress.

Unfortunately, today, college tuition fees are skyrocketing. The cost of tuition denies many students the opportunity to attend college, even those who are highly qualified. Moreover, students who do manage to attend college are often burdened with overwhelming student debt, which can limit their ability to contribute to society fully.

Full funding for higher education will dramatically reduce the cost of tuition and increase access to college education. It will also reduce students’ debt burden, enabling them to pursue opportunities in their field of choice, rather than simply settling for a high-paying job to pay off their debts.

In conclusion, education is an essential tool that can transform lives, build communities, and contribute to societal progress. To achieve that, we must fully fund PreK-12 and higher education to create equitable access to education for all. Consequently, the benefits of quality education will positively impact individuals, communities, and society as a whole.     

The Future of Media Literacy Education

Media literacy education has become increasingly important in recent years, as the proliferation of digital media and the internet has made it easier for individuals to access and consume large amounts of information. In the future, media literacy education will likely become even more critical as we continue to live in an increasingly digital and interconnected world.

One trend that is likely to shape the future of media literacy education is the increasing emphasis on critical thinking skills. As more and more information is available online, it is becoming increasingly important for individuals to be able to think critically about what they read and see. This means that media literacy education will need to focus on teaching individuals to question the validity and reliability of sources and to critically analyze the information presented to them.

Another trend that is likely to shape the future of media literacy education is the increasing use of social media. Social media platforms have become a powerful tool for communication and networking, but they also present new challenges for media literacy. In the future, media literacy education will need to address the unique challenges presented by social media, including the spread of misinformation and the potential for bias.

Finally, the future of media literacy education will likely be shaped by advances in technology. As new technologies emerge, such as virtual and augmented reality, media literacy education will need to adapt to these new forms of media. This will require educators to stay up-to-date with the latest tools and technologies and to develop new strategies for teaching media literacy in a constantly evolving landscape.

Overall, the future of media literacy education will be shaped by the increasing need for critical thinking skills, the rise of social media, and advances in technology. Educators will need to adapt to these changes in order to effectively prepare students for a world that is increasingly shaped by digital media and communication. It is clear that media literacy education will play a critical role in ensuring that individuals are able to navigate this new landscape and make informed decisions about the information they consume.

What Are the 7 Skills of Media Literacy?

Media literacy is an essential skill in today’s digital world. With the constant flow of information and news, it is crucial to be able to navigate and assess the various media sources. The ability to process and evaluate information from a variety of media sources is known as media literacy. Developing media literacy skills requires an understanding of the seven fundamental skills of media literacy. These skills enable you to analyze media critically, evaluate media sources, and navigate the digital world with confidence.

1) Inquiry Skills: Inquiry skills allow you to analyze and question information to determine its validity. By asking questions, you will be able to evaluate the reliability and credibility of the information. Inquiry skills also enable you to identify biases and perspectives that may influence the information you are consuming.

2) Search and Research Skills: With millions of sources available online, search and research skills are important media literacy skills. These skills will enable you to determine the credibility and reliability of sources. You will be able to differentiate between factual information and misinformation and also evaluate the relevance of sources.

3) Critical Thinking Skills: Critical thinking skills help you to interpret media messages accurately. They enable you to analyze, compare, and contrast different ideas presented in media sources, and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of arguments presented.

4) Analysis Skills: Analysis skills enable you to understand how media messages are constructed and disseminated. They allow you to identify forms of propaganda, interpret messages, and understand the underlying power dynamics of media sources.

5) Evaluation Skills: Evaluation skills enable you to determine the credibility of different media forms, such as blogs, websites, videos, and social media accounts. You will be able to consider the intent of the media source, the qualifications and expertise of the author, and the relevance and accuracy of the content.

6) Ethics and Responsibility Skills: Ethics and responsibility skills equip you with the knowledge to comprehend and become aware of ethical and responsible behavior online. These skills involve understanding the laws that govern online behavior, as well as issues surrounding plagiarism, copyright infringement, and online safety.

7) Reflection and Self-Assessment Skills: Reflection and self-assessment skills are essential skills in media literacy. They enable you to reflect on how media sources impact your life and how you contribute to media. They help you to understand the impact media has on society and how to contribute positively to media content.

In conclusion, media literacy is a crucial set of skills needed to navigate today’s digital world. The seven skills of media literacy, including inquiry, search and research, critical thinking, analysis, evaluation, ethics and responsibility, and reflection and self-assessment, enables us to identify relevant information, evaluate information sources, and become more responsible online users. These skills also allow us to contribute to media positively by creating and sharing media that inform and educate rather than deceive or manipulate.     1:14 PM

What Are the 4 Types of Media Literacy?

Media literacy is the ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and create media messages. It is an essential skill in today’s digital age where we are constantly exposed to different forms of media. Media literacy enables individuals to understand the impact of media messages on their lives and society at large. There are four types of media literacy that are commonly referred to as the “core concepts.” These are:

1. Access

Access refers to an individual’s ability to obtain information through media. This includes traditional forms of media like newspapers, television, radio, and books, as well as newer forms like the Internet, social media, and mobile applications. Media access depends on various factors like economic status, geography, age, race, and gender. Achieving media access means individuals must have the ability, motivation, and skills to be able to access media information.

2. Analyze

The analyze concept of media literacy refers to the ability of an individual to critically examine media messages. This includes understanding the purpose and intent behind media messages and the messages’ potential impact on the targeted audience. Analyzing media messages involves identifying different elements like the tone, language, context, and visual cues used in the media. The analysis also helps individuals identify the media biases and stereotyping used in media reports.

3. Evaluate

Evaluation is the ability to judge the quality, credibility, and relevance of media messages. This includes identifying misinformation, propaganda, and fake news. Evaluating media messages requires individuals to rely on their critical thinking skills and knowledge of the topic at hand. Applying different strategies like fact-checking, verifying media sources, and consulting with experts helps individuals evaluate the media’s reliability accurately.

4. Create

The create element of media literacy involves utilizing technology to produce media messages. This includes developing content like films, videos, podcasts, and other forms of digital and print media. Creating media content helps individuals understand the process of media production and the effort that goes into creating influential media messages.


Media literacy is an essential skill in today’s digital age. The four core concepts of media literacy; access, analyze, evaluate, and create, enable individuals to understand and respond to media messages’ potential impact. By empowering individuals with these skills, we create an informed and engaged society capable of engaging with media messages meaningfully.     

What Are the 4 Tools of Media Literacy?

Media literacy is the ability to analyze, evaluate, and understand media messages. It’s a critical skill that helps individuals identify the intentions, biases, and credibility of media sources. But how can we develop media literacy? There are four essential tools that can help us become more media literate.

1. Inquiry and analysis

Inquiry and analysis refer to the ability to ask questions and analyze media messages. When we encounter a media message, we need to ask ourselves: Who created this message? What is their purpose or motive? What techniques or strategies did they use to convey their message? By analyzing these questions, we can better understand the message’s intended audience and the potential impact it may have.

2. Critical thinking

Critical thinking is the ability to evaluate media messages through a critical lens. This tool helps individuals identify and address potential biases, propaganda, or misleading information. To practice critical thinking, we need to evaluate the evidence presented, identify any gaps or assumptions, and consider alternative perspectives.

3. Creativity and production

The third tool of media literacy is creativity and production. This tool involves creating media products, such as videos, podcasts, or social media posts. By understanding how media is created, we can more easily identify the techniques and strategies used in media messages. Additionally, creating media products can help us think critically about how our own media messages impact others.

4. Reflection

The final tool of media literacy is reflection, which involves examining our own media consumption habits. We need to reflect on our own biases, perspectives, and experiences and how they impact our interpretation of media messages. Additionally, reflecting on the media we consume can help us identify patterns or trends in media messages and understand broader media trends.

In conclusion, media literacy is a vital skill in today’s media-saturated world. By using these four tools of media literacy, we can analyze and evaluate media messages, think critically about them, create our own media products, and reflect on our media consumption habits. With these tools, we can become more responsible and conscious media consumers.  

What Are the 8 Elements of Media Literacy?

Media literacy has become an essential skill to possess in this day and age. The abundance of information made available through various media platforms has made it challenging to distinguish fact from fiction. Hence, understanding media literacy is an imperative concept to ensure individuals can evaluate media messages in a critical and informed manner. The 8 elements of media literacy are vital building blocks for a more in-depth understanding of this concept.

1. Media as a construction

The primary element of media literacy emphasizes that media messages are deliberately created to assert a particular point of view. All media messages, including, but not limited to, news articles, advertisements, and social media posts, are constructed. It is crucial to recognize that the creation of a media message is influenced by several factors, such as the message creator’s ideology, culture, and point of view.

2. Authorship

The second element of media literacy focuses on understanding the authorship of media messages. It is vital to recognize who created the message and who paid for it. Knowing the author’s identity is crucial for evaluating the message’s credibility, reliability, and potential biases.

3. Format

The format element of media literacy brings attention to the different ways media messages are presented to individuals. Media messages can appear in different shapes, from written texts, images, video, and audio. Knowing the different formats of media messages is essential for interpreting and analyzing the message’s intended meaning.

4. Audience

The element of media literacy concerning the audience emphasizes the message’s intended recipient. Different media messages target a specific audience, and it is crucial to recognize the message’s intended audience to evaluate its effectiveness.

5. Content

The content element of media literacy concerns the message’s intended meaning. Understanding the message’s meaning is crucial to determine whether it accurately represents the facts or presents a specific point of view.

6. Purpose

The purpose element of media literacy looks at the message creator’s intention and motivation for creating the message. It is essential to recognize the message’s intended purpose to determine its authenticity and credibility.

7. Representation

This element of media literacy brings attention to how media messages represent certain individuals, groups, and ideas. Media messages can reinforce societal norms, stereotypes and represent certain groups and cultures in a particular way. Understanding the media message’s representation is crucial to evaluate its fairness and accuracy.

8. Audience engagement

The final component of media literacy is audience engagement. It is vital to engage in discussion, share opinions, and debate with other individuals to ensure a better-informed and critical understanding of media messages.

In conclusion, media literacy is an essential concept that individuals must possess to navigate the vast array of media messages available. The 8 elements of media literacy are vital building blocks that individuals need to understand to recognize the creation of media messages, and their intended meaning, and to evaluate their authenticity and credibility. The understanding of media literacy is critical to ensure individuals are equipped to evaluate media messages critically and accurately.    

How Can I Become More Media Literate?

In today’s digital age, it’s easier than ever to access information from a variety of sources. However, it can be challenging to distinguish between reliable and unreliable information. Media literacy involves understanding how media works, its purpose, and evaluating sources critically. Here are some tips on how you can become more media literate.

1. Check your sources

Before trusting any information, check the source. Some sources are biased or have an agenda. Check the credibility of the source by looking at the publisher, author, and sponsors. Verify the information by searching for the same data from other sources.

2. Be aware of biases

Everyone has biases and perspectives that they bring to a situation. Media is no exception. It’s essential to understand the perspectives of the authors or publishers in each instance. If you’re unsure, check for other viewpoints to build a more unbiased picture of a situation.

3. Understand propaganda

Propaganda is information that is used to manipulate and influence people’s opinions and behaviors. Understanding propaganda techniques such as emotional appeal, misinformation, and ideology can help you recognize propaganda and make informed choices.

4. Be critical

Interpret the information you receive critically. Question the authenticity, accuracy, reliability, and fairness of the information. Cross-check and compare it with information from other sources to make an informed conclusion on a particular issue.

5. Analyze media messages

Media messages are constructed to influence and communicate with their audience. By understanding the techniques used in media messages, such as language, imagery, and tone, you can understand the motives and intentions of the message.

6. Attend media literacy courses

Learning from a media literacy course can be a great way to reinforce your media literacy skills. Various online courses, webinars, and workshops teach media literacy skills. They offer practical tips on understanding media, analyzing and interpreting media messages.

7. Respect and support diverse voices

Variety is essential in media. Diverse voices bring different experiences and perspectives that challenge and broaden our horizons. Support and listen to diverse voices by actively seeking and engaging with content created by underrepresented groups.


The internet has made it easier than ever to access information, but it’s essential to be media literate to ensure that the information we absorb is trustworthy and accurate. With these tips, you can become more media literate, making informed decisions and defending yourself against manipulation and misinformation.