Germination is the process by which seeds begin to grow into plants. Germination can take one to two weeks for the whole circle to finish.
The parts of a seed
Before we dive into germination and the process of seeds becoming larger organisms, let’s rundown the different parts of a seed. The inside of a seed is made up of four essential elements:
- The Epicotyl is the part of the seed that becomes the plant’s first leaves.
- The Hypocotyl: This is the stem of the plant.
- The Radicle: This is the first root of the plant.
- The Cotyledon: This is the protective inner layer of the seed. Its primary function is to store food for the seed to use during germination until the seed has fully broken through the soil. At this point, the seed will have leaves and can get food through photosynthesis.
Steps of seed germination
There are several different stages that seeds must go through during the process of germination. Three key steps in this process are:
- Imbibition: During this step, the seed absorbs water rapidly, and its coat swells and softens.
- Interim or lag phase: The seed cells begin to respire during this step. The seed also starts to make proteins and metabolize its food stores.
- The radicle and root emergence: During this step, the cells in the seed begin to get longer and divide. This draws the root and radicle out of the seed.
What things does a seed need to grow?
Like human beings and animals, seeds are living things. As such, they need certain things to grow. Firstly, a seed must contain living, healthy embryonic tissue to enter the germination process. Without this, the seed will not be able to grow at all. This is the first of a few things that a seed needs to grow. The others are as follows:
- Water: The first thing a seed needs to grow is water. Seeds need access to much water to go through the imbibition stage.
- Oxygen: Next up is oxygen. Oxygen operates as the seed’s primary energy source throughout the growth process. If a basis is buried too deep into the soil, it won’t be able to access sufficient oxygen to grow.
- Temperature: Lastly, seeds need to be placed at the right temperature to grow. The temperature is necessary depending on what seed is germinated. Some seeds only grow in warm temperatures, while others only grow in the cold.
Let’s dive a little deeper into the things that seeds need to grow.
The right environment
For a seed to successfully go through the germination process, it must be in the right environment. This means that the temperature, moisture, air, and light around the seed must all be right.
The perfect temperature for germination varies depending on the seed. However, all seeds have a specific temperature range in which they can germinate. It can be damaged if the seed is exposed to anything outside this range, either below the minimum or above the maximum temperature. It can also cause the seed to enter a dormant state.
- Moisture and oxygen
In the processes leading up to germination, seeds need the exact right moisture level in the surrounding soil. There also needs to be a good level of aeration for seeds to grow. This allows for efficient gas exchange between the germinating embryo and the earth. As mentioned before, seeds are living things, meaning that they respire. They need to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide to do this.
A seed’s ability to respire is closely linked to the moisture levels in the soil. If the soil is overwatered, there will not be enough room for the carbon dioxide to move away from the seeds. This will, in turn, cause the seed to suffocate and die.
Much like temperature, the light requirements of seeds vary greatly. Some seeds require dark conditions to germinate correctly, and their growth will be. However, other seed species rely on lots of light to go through the germination process.
The light requirements for seeds and seedlings are different. It is important not to get the two confused. While not all seeds need the same light to grow, all seedlings require sunlight. If not exposed to enough light, seedlings will become fragile and not grow to their full potential.
Even if a seed is considered viable and given all the things it needs to grow, there is still a chance that it will not germinate. This is down to something called ‘dormancy.’ Seed dormancy is a condition that stops seeds from going through the process of germination, even when they are exposed to all of the suitable needs. So, why does seed dormancy happen?
Seed dormancy is not a mistake but a clever trick to keep seeds safe. In nature, the germination process is staggered to save some seedlings safe from potential dangers, like bad weather or predators. For example, the seeds of plants that thrive in spring have decided only to germinate after the cold winter weather has passed. This is an act of self-preservation.
How do seeds break out of seed dormancy? For seeds to leave their period of inactivity, their physical or chemical dormancy factors must be broken. For example, some examples have Other seeds that possess certain chemical conditions within them that stop germination from happening. This is a chemical dormancy factor.
Now, we know the different things a need needs to grow and germinate. We know that if they are not exposed to the necessary conditions, seeds will struggle to grow and may germinate slowly and unevenly. Are there any other factors that can impact the germination process for seeds? Yes, uneven germination can also cause many issues with growing seeds. When it comes to planting seeds, uniformity is critical. If seeds are planted unevenly, the germination process will be negatively affected.
Five easy steps for planting your seeds
At this point, you’re pretty much an expert in seed growth and germination. You know what things a seed needs to grow. However, if you want to put your, This is a great activity to carry out with your class to help them visualize the germination process.
- Step 1: Check your timing
The first step in planting your seeds is to get the timing right. It would help if you analyzed the weather outside to determine the best time to plant your seeds. The goal is to grow your seeds to be ready to be transferred out when the weather is favorable. This timing will vary from source to seed, so it is best to look up the optimal growing conditions for your specific seeds.
If you are working with vegetable seeds, some of these are best planted outside from the jump. These seeds germinate, grow super quickly, and don’t require any time indoors. This is also the case for some flower seeds.
- Step 2: Get your soil ready
Before planting your seeds, ensure your soil is nice and moist. Remember not to overwater your soil, as this will suffocate the seeds! Once you’ve done this, you can fill your containers with the ground.
- Step 3: Start planting
Depending on what type of seeds you are working with, the depth at which they must be planted will vary. Some smaller sources don’t need to be buried deeply at all. These seeds only need to be sprinkled on the surface of the soil to grow. Larger seeds, however, must be planted more profoundly into the ground.
Once your seeds have been planted, you can lightly water the containers. If you want to keep the moisture in the soil, you can cover your containers with cling film. Remember to remove this cover once the seeds show signs of green.
- Step 4: Water, food, and light
This growth step is about observing and staying on top of your seed’s needs. This will involve frequently watering your soil to keep it moist, feeding your seeds with fertilizer, and ensuring your seedlings get plenty of light.
- Step 5: Planting out
Once you can see that your seeds have sprouted their first few leaves and are big enough to handle without damaging them, they are ready to be planted in individual pots. The seeds aren’t prepared for the whole garden expert at this stance. They still need a little more time inside to get strong.
For around a week before you plant your seeds in the garden, you should place them in a protected area outside for a few hours a day, taking them inside at night. Over this week, expose your seeds to more and more light and wind, and they will grow big and strong.
Once this week is up, your seeds are ready to plant outside in the garden, where they will grow into beautiful plants!