An organelle is a name for the small organ-like structures you can find inside cells. These structures carry out functions that help cells to do their jobs.
What are the different types of cells?
There are two main types of cells, eukaryotic and prokaryotic.
Prokaryotic cells are much simpler than eukaryotic with no membrane-bound organelles like mitochondria and a nucleus. Prokaryotic cells are found in prokaryotes or bacteria. These cells are only made up of the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, and DNA/RNA.
Eukaryotic cells are split into two groups; plant and animal cells.
There are a few differences between these two types of cells. Plant cells are rectangular, while animal cells are circular. Plant cells also contain chloroplasts and one large vacuole that takes up 90% of the cell, whereas animal cells do not contain chloroplasts and have many small vacuoles scattered throughout the cell.
Do all cells have the same organelles?
Different types of cells have specialized organelles for their specific purposes.
For example, Plant cells contain chloroplasts and chlorophyll. These are cells that give plants their green color. It helps them absorb sunlight and photosynthesize. Plant cells also have a cell wall rather than a plasma membrane.
Cell organelles and their functions:
|Nucleus||It is the brain of the cell. It directs all the cell activities and contains the DNA|
|Mitochondria||Makes energy for the cell|
|Golgi Apparatus||Makes, processes, and packages proteins|
|Lysosome||Breaks down food|
|Endoplasmic Reticulum||Used for transporting items around the cell|
|Vacuole||Stores food and water|
Organelles that are found only in plant cells.
|Chloroplasts||Contain the green pigment chlorophyll, which aids in photosynthesis.q|
|Cell wall||It is essentially the same as the plasma membrane found in an animal cell, but rather than being made of lipids and proteins, the cell wall is made of cellulose fibers.|
|Permanent Vacuole||This large vacuole is filled with liquid and helps push the cell contents toward the edge of the cell and keep the cell firm.|