A square is a shape with four equal sides and four equal right angles. It’s a type of quadrilateral, a polygon with four edges and four vertices. A square is a regular quadrilateral whose sides and angles are equal. A square has four angles of 90°, just like a rectangle. It’s essential to remember that this is the only similarity rectangles and squares share, as the former has two long vertices and two shorter ones.

What are the properties of a square?

As mentioned, various properties define a square and help it stand out from other 2D shapes. One such property is each square’s four sides being of equal length. There do exist different shapes with this trait, but thankfully, there are more unique traits that help separate squares from everything else:

  • Due to having four equal sides, all four right angles of a square are exactly 90°. Therefore, if a shape doesn’t have four 90° right angles, it can’t be square.
  • The opposite side of a square is parallel. Parallel means that these sides are the same distance apart and never meet.
  • The diagonals of a square bisect each other at right angles.

How to measure the area of a square

Unlike other shapes, measuring the area of a square is relatively easy; this is due to it being a symmetrical shape with four equal sides and right angles. So all you have to find out to measure the area of a square is the length of one side. Then all you have to do is multiply that number by itself, and hey presto, you’ll have your area.

Let’s work through an example to showcase this formula.

Example: Find the area of a square with a 5m side.

As we’ve mentioned already, all we need is the length of one side to find the area of a square. The equation we use is Area = Side​​². In this case, that means we do this:

Area = 5 x 5

Area = 25

And there we have it; now you know how to find the area of a square!



10 Children’s Books That Celebrate Native American Heritage Month


First Laugh – Welcome Baby! by Rose Ann Tahe and Nancy Bo Flood

Ages 2-5

A delightful picture book that aims to introduce your preschoolers to Navajo traditions, this short story is centered around a family’s quest to get the newest little member of the family to laugh for the first time. In Navajo tradition, whoever can spark the first giggle from a baby has the great honor of hosting a laughing ceremony.

Moving from the family’s home in the city to the grandparents’ home in the country, your young readers can explore Navajo culture, Native American names for family members, and the ceremonies in Navajo communities. Will it be nima (mom), nadi (sister), or cheii (grandpa) to make a baby laugh for the first time?

Wild Berries by Julie Flett

Ages 2-5

Julie Flett has written an astonishing book that touches on her Cree ancestry. Wonderfully illustrated with a striking color palette, your preschoolers are sure to be enthralled by the pictures, the text, and, more essentially, the message behind the story.

Clarence and his grandmother go blueberry picking in the wood and meet Fox, Spider, and Ant along the way. After they have a full bucket of fruit and Clarence has eaten his fair share of fat, sour blueberries, the young boy decides to leave some berries for the birds. By exploring the relationship between the Cree tribe and nature, your children can consider their relationship with the environment.

Sprinkled with Cree words throughout the text, your young learners can enjoy listening to the sounds of a Native American dialect. At the same time, you can use the accompanying glossary for direct translations.

Fry Bread: A Native American Family Story by Kevin Noble Maillard

Ages 2-5

Putting Native American food at the heart of this lovely tale, Maillard aims to show off the diversity within Native American culture in a way that emergent readers can understand.

Describing fry bread and its qualities in rhyming verse, the story centers around a large family gathering. The characters joyfully make the fry bread and come together to share the Native American comfort food.

The author uses the fry bread to link to the importance of the nation, identity, and art for Native American cultures. He also includes his recipe for fry bread but clarifies that there isn’t a one-size-fits-all list of ingredients for this meal. Instead, there are hundreds, if not thousands, of variations, in the same way that there are hundreds, if not thousands, of intricate traditions that different Native American families and communities share.

Children’s Books For Native American Heritage Month: Elementary

Sharice’s Big Voice: A Native Kid Becomes A Congresswoman by Sharice Davids and Nancy Mays

Ages 5-9

Many Native American kids don’t feel like they have many role models to look up to as they grow up. Sharice Edwards felt the same. So by writing her autobiographical picture book, she aims to be that role model.

As a young girl, Sharice loved making noise, talking, being the center of attention, and having her voice heard. Coupled with this tenacity, she was super proud of her Ho-Chunk Nation heritage and didn’t want it to be a barrier to her ambitions.

This picture book shows her journey to become the first Native American congresswoman and the first LGBTQ person to represent Kansas in Congress.

This children’s book is an inspirational story that is an awesome way to celebrate the glass ceilings that Native American individuals are smashing.

The Apple Tree by Sandy Tharp-Thee

Ages 5-9

This beautiful story tells the tale of a young Cherokee boy who plants an apple seed. The apple tree that grows is worried because it cannot produce fruit. The tree is full of doubt, and it’s the young boy’s job to convince it that patience is a virtue and that the seasons will eventually work their magic!

The introduction page to this tale details some history of the Cherokee language and explains the Cherokee vocabulary used within the story. Then, read the story aloud with your children and practice saying some Cherokee words together.

With some cute illustrations, your learners can gain a deeper understanding of how the Cherokee tribe feels a spiritual connection to nature; this is a great read to help your kids gain exposure to an indigenous dialect and celebrate Native American Heritage Month.

How The Stars Fell Into The Sky: A Navajo Legend by Jerrie Oughton

Ages 7-12

Read your children this Navajo legend to bring a little awe and wonder into your classroom. Filled with stunning illustrations, this compelling folktale tells how First Woman tried to make patterns in the night sky with the stars to communicate the law of the land to her community. However, Coyote, a mischievous and foolhardy creature, decides to meddle with her star patterns, causing disorder.

Will First Woman be able to organize the stars in the sky to create laws for her tribe?

Perfect to read aloud and enthrall your younger learners; this Navajo tale explores the themes of patience, kindness, and trust while focusing on a traditional Native American creation legend.

Hiawatha and the Peacemaker by Robbie Robertson

Ages 7-12

To dig deeper into Native American history and the impact different tribes have had on modern American society, Hiawatha and the Peacemaker is the ideal book to use as a class text.

The Iroquois tribe is proud of its impact on democracy as we know it today. In the 1400s, five Iroquois nations were at war. Hiawatha, a strong yet humble Mohawk, had a spiritual guide called the Peacemaker. He translated a message of unity from his Peacemaker guide and relayed this to the fighting Iroquois nations. The message helped to bring together the Iroquois and develop an advanced way of governing themselves.

This ability to govern without further skirmishes and in a fair and just way inspired the authors of the American Constitution. Look no further than this book during Native American Heritage Month to learn how the indigenous people of America have contributed to the nation.

Mary And The Trail Of Tears: A Cherokee Removal Survival Story by Andrea L. Rogers

Ages 9-13

A more gripping read for older elementary students, this short novel details the trauma many Native Americans endured in the 1800s.

In 1838, American soldiers in Georgia forced a Cherokee family from their home. The story is told through the eyes of the family’s daughter – twelve-year-old Mary. She is proud of her heritage, adores her home, and is a sweet, likable girl. Your kids will empathize with her, and she’ll keep them hooked on the story.

Your class will explore the themes of violence, internment, and racism through this historical fiction text. In addition, real-life support material is shown, and a glossary is included to help students get to grips with more complex issues.

While the story might be heart-wrenching, some useful teaching points are within it. They’ll be rooting for Mary and her family while learning about what happened to thousands of Native American families who were stripped of their livelihoods and forced to march across the country to their “new homes.” You couldn’t find a more appropriate book to encourage your kids to ask some difficult questions.

And let’s not forget the joy of nonfiction when celebrating Native American Heritage Month.

D Is For Drum by Michael and Debbie Shoulders

Ideal for kids of any age, this A to Z is a whistle-stop tour of Native American culture and paints a vivid picture of how hundreds of nations and tribes lived years ago.

Your students will enjoy learning about rain dances, why horses were called sacred dogs, the art of weaving, and the Yup’ik masks worn by the Inuit tribes. But this is just the tip of the iceberg. Your students will have facts about Native American culture coming from their ears after reading this book!

With an emphasis on the traditional Native American heritage of hundreds of tribes from across the United States, your visual learners will be mesmerized by the colorful accompanying illustrations and be able to picture what life was like for the indigenous people of the United States.

A Kid’s Guide To Native American History: More Than 50 Activities by Yvonne Wakim Dennis

This book breaks away from the cultural stereotypes of Native American identity. Instead, the crafts, art projects, and recipes explored are authentic and respectful to Native American communities.

You might fancy using this book in class to rustle up a succotash, a traditional dish from seventeenth-century Native American culture. Or, perhaps you want to construct a pair of snowshoes in the same way as indigenous people in the Midwest centuries ago? Or maybe, creating a Delaware story bag is the perfect way to link your Native American Heritage Month celebrations with your ELA lessons?

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