Temperature measures the warmth or coldness of an object or material. Temperature is the expression of thermal energy.

What’s the science behind it? The scientific definition of temperature involves energy, which makes temperature different from measuring heat. Temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy of particles in an object. Particles constantly move; the faster/higher the energy, the higher the temperature. So with temperature, higher equals warmer.

What is Used to Measure Temperature?

Temperature is measured using a device called a thermometer. The most common type uses a long thin tube filled with liquid mercury or sometimes alcohol. Why are they used? Mercury and alcohol will remain liquids over a broader range of temperatures than other liquids. Therefore, mercury will rise when the temperature is warmer and fall when the temperature is colder. So, say a room is warm, and the temperature causes a slight change in the volume of the liquid used in the thermometer. It causes the to rise the tube, now reflecting a higher temperature.

How is Temperature Measured?

Temperature is measured with three different degrees.

  • Celsius: The most common form of measuring temperature in day-to-day situations. The Celsius scale is used to measure temperature in the UK.
  • Fahrenheit is the less common form of measuring temperature, although some countries (the United States) use this scale as their central temperature unit.
  • Kelvin: Kelvin is used in extreme heat or cold cases – most often in scientific environments. 0 Kelvin is also known as absolute zero. Theoretically, this is where particles are not moving at all, although this would never be observed naturally.

What Happens in Lower Temperatures?

In lower temperatures, particles move slower and have less kinetic energy, causing less friction and lower heat. The material will also usually shrink, harden or freeze in lower temperatures, with many substances changing state. For example, liquid water will freeze to become ice in temperatures below zero degrees Celsius as there will be no thermal energy.

In many places on Earth, during the winter months, we experience colder temperatures at both poles of the Earth. It is because the Sun is further away at these points/times.

What Happens in Higher Temperatures?

In higher temperatures, particles move faster and have higher kinetic energy, causing more friction and heat. Depending on the structure, the material may begin to break apart, melt or expand.

In hot temperatures, water will change state, turning into gas and evaporating. t is why deserts are typical around the equator of the Earth – the warmest parts of the world.

Temperature and the Human Body

Temperature affects several physical processes; it’s essential to keeping our bodies healthy and functioning correctly.

The average temperature of the human body is 36.5–37.5°C. At this temperature, bodies can function normally.

When our temperature rises, this can be an indication that we’re unwell – this is called a fever. It is because our bodies are working harder to fight off an infection. Your levels of white blood cells increase to fight the condition, affecting the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is the part of the brain that controls several things, including temperature.

What Happens to Our Bodies in Warmer Weather?

As temperature rises, our heart rate increases, blood flow increases, it’s pumped to the skin’s surface, and we begin the sweat; this is our bodies’ way of cooling us down, and as the sweat evaporates, it takes the heat with it.

If our body temperature rises too high, our muscles begin working slower, and heat exhaustion can occur. Above 41°C, our bodies can start to shut down as chemical processes that occur in the body are affected.

What Happens to Our Bodies in Colder Weather?

Our bodies will begin to shiver in colder weather; this is our muscles acting to warm us up by generating heat. If our body temperatures drop too low, our heart rate slows, and our regular body functions can’t work usually. It is called hypothermia.

Fun Temperature Facts

Do you want to know what some of the hottest and coldest things in the world are?

  • The core of the Sun can reach 15 million degrees Celsius!
  • A lightning bolt is 27,727°C.
  • Earth’s core is 5,377°C.
  • 100°C is the boiling point of water.
  • The highest recorded temperature on Earth was in Death Valley, United States, where it reached 56.7°C in 1913.
  • -15°C is the melting point of ice cream.
  • Earth’s core is 5,377°C.
  • 100°C is the boiling point of water.
  • The highest recorded temperature on Earth was in Death Valley, United States, where it reached 56.7°C in 1913.
  • -15°C is the melting point of ice cream.
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